African Insurrections on Board Slave Ships

BY JOSEPH E. HOLLOWAY

Thousands of enslaved Africans tried to overthrow their captors on slave ships taking them to the Americas. The exact number of shipboard rebellions is unknown. But, historians have documented over 500 incidents.[1] On board slave revolts have been debated in a new light. For a long time scholars have been overly concerned with enslaved African resistances in the Americas and on the plantations, little attention has been given to the patterns of revolts on slave board ships on the African coast and in the Atlantic crossing between 1650 and 1860. David Richardson writing on shipboard revolts suggests that the large number of slave revolts on board slave ships significantly reduced the number of ships of enslaved Africans coming to the New World. About 1 percent of enslaved Africans entering the Atlantic slave trade from 1500 to 1867—or 100,000 Africans—died in revolts at the African coast or in the Atlantic crossing This was one-fifteenth the number of all those who died in the Middle Passage.[2] The total figure of Africans who died during the Middle Passage might be as high as 60 million over three hundred years of slave trading activities. Because of ship board revolts by Africans between 1680 and 1800, it reduced the number of Africans shipped across the Middle Passage by 10 percent. In other words, Africans who died resisting slave traders, who resisted unsuccessfully and survived to work on plantations saved between 600,000 to 700,000 Africans from being shipped to America in the eighteenth century, and another 1,000,000 during the whole history of the slave trade.[3]

The average number of enslaved Africans on board slave ships as it left Africa was 332.0 an average of 281.1 per ship to the Americans.[4] There is a consensus among scholars that the total number of slave ships arriving in the New World were about 34,482 voyages based on numbers leaving Africa and 35, 561 voyages based on numbers disembarking Africa. Out of 27,237 voyages from Africa to the New World 2,788 voyages disappeared from the historical record, and 1,401 voyages failed to embark with enslaved Africans because of capture or shipwreck prior to reaching Africa. Out of 23,040 expeditions known to have embarked with enslaved Africans, 145 sank with the loss of all Africans on board, and another 1,559 left no information of outcome. There were certainly hundreds, if not thousands of shipboard rebellion for which there are no records. Faced with the threat of uprisings, slave traders undertook expensive precautions to prevent rebellions, usually in the form of heavily armed and numerous crews.

The periods for the high concentration of on board slave ships are from 1751 to 1775.[5] This supports the thesis put forth by David Eltis that the period 1750-1794 was the “key period” in concentrations of shipboard slave revolts.[6] The obvious reason for this to be the key period because after the American War of Independence the British were no longer bringing enslaved Africans into the American marking the end of the American Colonial Era.

Rebellions were not the only form of shipboard resistance. Slavers had to constantly police the captives to prevent them from committing suicide by starving themselves or leaping over board into the ocean. The costs of preventing rebellions and the other acts of defiance undoubtedly reduced the total number of Africans taken from Africa. Had the costs been lower, many more Africans would have been shipped to the Americas. Some scholars put the number of Africans not taken to the Americas because of the extra cost of preventing rebellions at over one million persons.

Most of these shipboard uprisings occurred in the last 50 years of the 18th century. In the 19th century, the number of documented revolts dropped off dramatically, probably due to one or a combination of factors, including reduced traffic due to the outlawing of the trade by America and Great Britain; the increasing numbers of women and children among the enslaved Africans on the ships.

It appears that Africans from West Africa were more likely to rebel than Africans from Central Africa. Africans from present-day Senegal participated in shipboard revolts more frequently than African from the Kongo region. Why? The answer may have to do with the fact that some Senegambian Africans had, themselves, been slave traders, who resisted enslavement to Europeans as an act of political awareness of the how the system operated.

Africans from Central Africa were usually captives taken from up to 300 miles in the interior. These captives seldom participated in the coastal slave trade. Although we can never known what enslaved people thought, captives from the interior brought hundreds of miles to the coast from agricultural villages were probably stunned by their plight, and much less likely to rebel. Many Senegambian captives possibly knew exactly what was happening to them and understood that their only hope for escaping slavery was open rebellion while still in sight of the African coastline. This interpretation argues that some Africans rebelled because of their culture and the historical circumstances of their enslavement. This puts less importance on the conditions on the slave ships or the harsh management practices of the African slaves. So, we must conclude that it was probably of combination of both factors.

Although enslaved African males usually led the rebellions, there is some indication that enslaved women also played key roles in the revolts. Women were typically kept separate from the enslaved men. They were seldom shackled and sometimes allowed free movement on the decks. This is especially true of those who were sexually assaulted by the ship’s officers. These women might have provided information to the men that response to cruel conditions on board the ships or the slave pens [barracoons] on shore. At other times, the insurgents coordinated their attacks in detailed plans that included keeping some of the crew alive to steer the captured ship back to Africa.

This overview focuses only on a selected number of slave insurrections on board slave ships from the New England Colonies to illustrate that enslaved Africans did not accept their servitude and did everything within their power to remain free. Between 1588 and 1867, more than 35,561 transatlantic slave trading voyages occurred. Roughly 10 percent of enslaved Africans rebelled on their way from Africa to the Americas. This figure only represents about 75 percent of the total trade, so the actual number of on board slave rebellions is much higher. In over 350 years of the slave trade to the Americas—the Spanish, French, Dutch, Portuguese, English and later the Americans were the most active in slave trafficking of Africans.

The transatlantic slave trade—or the African Holocaust—was the largest forced migration in human history. It established a permanent link between Africa and North America as Africans were sold into slavery and would forever change North America, and the countries of the Americas. For more than 300 years the transatlantic slave trade relocated between 15 and 20 million Africans to the Western Hemisphere.

The transatlantic slave trade brought an estimated half-million Africans to what is now the United States between 1670 and 1807. This total is thought to represent about 7 percent of the entire transatlantic slave trade, though the exact figures are in dispute, and the total volume of the slave trade may never be known.

Of the American ships involved in the transatlantic slave trade, Rhode Island ports were the most active. There about 1,000 voyages from Rhode Island ports, and accounted for about half of all slave ships from the North American mainland. New England ships carried more enslaved Africans than any other American colony. In total, about 2,000 voyages left North American ports between 1714 and 1807, carrying an estimated 220,600 Africans on colonial American vessels.

As a result of this high volume on colonial American ships from New England colonies, they experienced more slave mutinies than any of the other American colonies. The Puritan colonies in the 18th century were the greatest slave-trading communities in North America. They came from Boston, Salem, and Charlestowne in Massachusetts; Newport, Providence, and Bristol in Rhode Island; and New London and Hartford in Connecticut.

The rediscovery of the New World by Columbus in 1492 opened the gate to world powers and prompted colonial and private individuals to search for wealth. The fertile land attracted farmers, especially from Spain, Portugal, France and England. The new immigrants needed cheap labor to mine precious metals and to work on plantations. Their desire led to the transatlantic slave trade, in which millions of Africans were brought to the New World to meet this new labor demand.

This trade in human beings established a permanent link between Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Most enslaved Africans were exported from the region between modern Senegal and Angola. Roughly 60 percent were from West Africa and 40 percent were from Central Africa. Between 1530 and 1600, averages of 13,000 enslaved Africans were being exported to the Americas every year. In the 17th century the number rose to 27,500 slaves a year being exported to Brazil and Central America; then to 70,000 a year in the 18th century; and to 135,000 by the 1830s.

African ethnicity and the transatlantic slave trade. The transatlantic slave trade was in full-scale operation by the late 1600s. Documents from 1700 to 1730 are vague in identifying Africans ethnicity on the American plantations, but we do have data on total importation. Between 1706 and 1724, 5,081 enslaved Africans in colonial South Carolina, and between 1721 and 1726, 3,632 were imported. Even though relatively few Africans were imported during the early years of the colonial period, they outnumbered the white population. In just twenty years after the original settlement the African population in the Carolinas was equal to that of European. By 1715 Africans outnumbered Europeans 10,500 to 6,250. By 1720 Africans had outnumbered Europeans for more than a decade.[7]

 

PROVISIONS FOR THE MIDDLE PASSAGE

Slave ships left Liverpool, London, and other European ports with provisions of food supplies for their crews. These foods included beans, cheese, beef, flour, and grog [a mixture of rum and water]. Once the ships reached the western coast of Africa, ship captains purchased pepper, palm oil, lemons, limes, yams, plantains and coconuts to feed the enslaved Africans.

To “purchase” the Africans, slave ship captains brought with them rum, iron bars, colorful glass beads, alcohol, tobacco, and red cloth. With that barter they acquired Africans, whom they carried to the West Indies or the American South, and sold them for rum, molasses, sugar, and cocoa. The molasses and sugar were brought to New England to be distilled into rum and then transported to Africa to buy more enslaved Africans. Thus the triangular slave trade with its major points from New England, Africa, the West Indies, and North America.

Enslaved Africans were usually fed twice a day in shifts. Ship cooks prepared vegetable pulps, porridge and stews for the crew to distribute in buckets to the Africans, assembled on deck when the weather was good or below deck during storms. At the beginning of the voyage, each African received a wooden spoon for dipping into the buckets, which were shared by about 10 individuals. Captains skimped on supplies to make room for more Africans, which resulted in an increased mortality rate.

On board slave ships the Africans were crammed into hot, stuffy holds between the decks. These were small compartments about three feet high and two feet wide. These captives were forced to lie in a spoon-shape fashion on their sides. Males were chained together by twos. Females were unfettered and separated from the men by partitions. As the enslaved Africans lay naked on the planks, the rolling motion of the ship rubbed the flesh from various parts of their bodies, forcing the miserable beings to lie in their blood, mucus, and feces.

Food and water often ran low or ran out, causing death from thirst and hunger. In addition to these deprivations, Africans also suffered from diseases such as yaws, syphilis, smallpox, fevers, opthalmia and dropsy. Accompanying this misery and suffering in the Middle Passage was a high mortality among those below decks. The crewmen made daily rounds in the stinking holds to unshackle the dead from the living, throwing the dead bodies to the sharks, who changed their migratory pattern to follow slave ships. Lack of sanitation and disease killed about 40 percent of the human cargo. Africans died from malaria, yellow fever, measles, smallpox, hookworm, scurvy and dysentery.

Although death rates were astronomical on board the slave ships before 1750, there was a drop in the mortality rate as ship surgeons learned more about hygiene and diet, particularly scurvy. African women on slave ships fared worse than the men because they were not in a position to protect themselves against unwanted sexual assault from the European crewmen. Sailors during long voyages saw the enslaved women as easy prey. African women ensnared in the Atlantic slave trade were worth only about half the price of African men in Caribbean markets. Many were kept in Africa as concubines of the slave traders. Women were kept in a separate below-deck compartments on slave ships, which made it easier for the captains and crews to have access for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

In 1721, eight enslaved Africans on the slave ship Henry of London, managed to free themselves from their irons and attempted to seize the ship and subdue the 50-man crew. After being driven back by lances and firearms, they jumped overboard.[8] In June 1730, Captain George Scott of the sloop Little George sailed from the Guinea Coast en route to Rhode Island with a cargo of some 96 enslaved Africans. Several days into the voyage, several Africans slipped out of their irons and killed the three watchmen who were on deck. The captain and his crew were forced down into the cabin where they were imprisoned by the revolting Africans. For several days the Africans controlled the ship and managed to sail it back to the Sierra Leone River. Finally, the captain and the enslaved Africans made a deal and agreed to grant each other their freedom. After making it to shore, the Africans abandoned the ship.[9] Captain Scott told of the incident: “I, George Scott, Master of the Sloop the Little George, belonging to Rhode Island; Sailed from the Bonnana Islands on the Coast of Guinea, the first of June 1730, having on Board Ninety six Slaves. On the 6th of said Month at half an hour past four of the Clock in the Morning, being about 100 Leagues distant from the Land, the Men Slaves got out of their Irons, and making way thro’ the bulkhead of the Deck, killed the Watch [man] consisting of John Harris Doctor, Jonathan Ebens Cooper, and Thomas Ham Sailor; who were, thought, all asleep. I being then in my Cabin and hearing Noise upon Deck (they throwing the Watch overboard) took my Pistol directly, and fired up the Scuttle which was abaft, which made all the Slaves that were loose run forwards except one or two Men (who seemed to laugh at the Cowardice of the rest, and defiance of us, being but 4 Men and a Boy) who laid the Scuttle, and kept us down confin’d in the Cabin, and passing by Companion to view us.. . .”[10] Captain Jump of the Massachusetts schooner, William, was surprised by Africans on board his ship in an uprising off the coast of Africa. According to English newspapers, all his crew except three was killed in the uprising.[11]

In 1732 James Barbot Jr., a sailor aboard the English slaver Don Carlos, describes a slave uprising that took place aboard the vessel. “About one in the afternoon, after dinner, we, according to custom caused them, one by one, to go down between decks, to have each his pint of water; most of them were yet above deck many of them provided with knives, which we had indiscreetly given them two or three days before, as not suspecting the least attempt of this nature from them; others had pieces of iron they had torn off our forecastle door, as having premeditated a revolt, and seeing all the ship’s company, at best but weak and many quite sick, they had also broken off the shackles from several of their companions feet, which served them, as well as billets they had provided themselves with, and all other things they could lay hands on, which they imagin’d might be of use for this enterprise. Thus arm’d, they fell in clouds and parcels on our men, upon the deck unawares, and stabb’d one of the stoutest of us all, who receiv’d fourteen or fifteen wounds of their knives, and so expir’d.

Next they assaulted our boatswain, and cut one of his legs so round the bone, that he could not move, the nerves being cut through; others cut our cook’s throat to the pipe, and others wounded three of the sailors, and threw one of them over board in that condition, from the fore castle into the sea; who, however, by good providence, got hold of the bowline of the fore sail, and sav’d himself. . .we stood in arms, firing on the revolted slaves, of whom we kill’d some, and wounded many: which so terrif’d the rest, that they gave way, dispersing themselves some on way and some another between decks, and under fore castle; and many of the most mutinous, leapt over board, and drown’d themselves in the ocean with much resolution, shewing no manner of concern for life.

Thus we lost twenty seven or twenty eight slaves, either kill’d by us, or drown’d; and having master’d them, caused all to go betwixt decks, giving them good words. The next day we had them all again upon deck, where they unanimously declar’d, the Menbombe slaves had been the contrivers of the mutiny, and for an example we caused about thirty of the ringleaders to be very severely whipt by all our men that were capable of doing that office…”

Captain John Major of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, while on the coast of Guinea lost his life along with all of his crew. It was reported that he “was treacherously Murdred, and his Vessel and Cargoe seized upon by the Negroes.”[12] In 1733, Captain Moore was attacked at midnight by a group of Africans with firearms. During the fighting, the ship accidentally went ashore. Captain Moore described the events in a letter: “On the 17th of June last, as we were coming down the River Gambia, at Twelve o’clock in the Night, the Natives fired at us upon which began a very smart Engagement, which lasted till day light: Mr. Lowder was most of the Time in the Cabin loading small Arms, some of our People not having Discretion to do it themselves, till by an unhappy contrary Wind, the River narrow, and the Vessel not answering her Helm, we fell along the Shore, the Native rus’d on in great Numbers in order to board us, but were so received that they thought proper to Retreat: In which Conflict Mr. Lowder came upon Deck, and (being in a Consternation) was shot thro’ the body; he went immediately down, and had all imaginable Care taken of him: he being in the Height of Action, his Wound was with great Difficulty stop’d bleeding. He liv’d Twenty four Hours, sensible of his approaching Dissolution, and spent his little Time in making his eternal Peace…”[13]

In 1735, enslaved Africans aboard the ship Dolphin of London, off the coast of Africa revolted against the crew. Being overpowered they got into the powder room and blew themselves up, along with the crew. In 1742 while taking on slaves in the Sierra Leone River, the vessel the Jolly Batchelor was attacked and captured by the enslaved Africans. In the fighting, Captain Cutler and two of his men were killed. The Africans stripped the vessel of its rigging and sails, freed the other Africans in the hold, and then abandoned the ship. [14]

In 1747 the Africans on board a Rhode Island ship commanded by Captain Beers, rose up when off the shore of Cape Coast Castle in Ghana and murdered the captain and all the crew, except two crew members, who swam ashore. This incident is recounted in the papers: “By a letter from the Coast of Guiney, via Barbadoes, dated the 14th of January last, we have Advice, that Captain Bear in a Vessel belonging to Rhode Island, being off Cape Coast Castle with a Number of Negro Slaves, and a considerable Quantity of Gold Dust on board; the said Slaves found an opportunity to rise against the Master and Men, and kill’d the said Master and all the Crew, except the two Masters [Mates], who by jumping over board and swimming ashore sav’d their lives.” What became of the vessel and the Africans is not known.[15]

Enslaved Africans aboard a Rhode Island ship commanded by Captain Hamblett revolted causing him to lose his best Africans. Nicholas Own, an Englishman serving aboard a Rhode Island vessel in 1757, told of an incident in which a slave ship he was aboard was captured and its human cargo liberated by Africans. The ship was anchored off Banana Island, where the captain and five of his crew went ashore. They were captured by Africans, who later took and plundered the ship.

In 1758 Captain T. Rogers, master of a vessel belonging to Messrs. Samuel and William Vernon of Newport, was carrying a cargo of enslaved Africans from Barbados to St. Christopher in the West Indies. While on the high seas, the slaves revolted and attempted to seize the ship. In the suppressing of the revolt, eleven male Africans were killed; 13 jumped overboard, one was killed and several more wounded.

On September 24, 1761, enslaved Africans aboard the Boston sloop ship Thomas, commanded by Thomas Day, revolted off the coast of Africa, and broke through the hatches “and rose upon the Crew, but were soon overcome and subdued, their Ring leader being Shot and kill’d, and others wounded.”[16]

Captain Nichols of Boston lost 40 of his slaves by an insurrection, but was able to save his vessel. A person known only as Carroll told of a successful slave insurrection aboard a New Hampshire vessel commanded by Captain John Majors of Portsmouth. The Africans revolted, killing the entire crew and seized both the schooner and its cargo.

In June of 1764, a sloop named the Adventure, belonging to Rhode Island or New London, was trading in Sierra Leone on the West Coast and suffered a similar fate. The master Captain Joseph Millar died as did all his Hands, except two. It was reported that the “Negroes soon after availing themselves of that Opportunity, came off from the shore and killed the two surviving Men, and then took Possession of, and pillaged the Vessel.”[17]  

In 1764, a Boston Court listened to a tale of mutiny and murder, and an enslaved African insurrection from William Preest of the slave ship Hope, belonging to Messrs. Forseys of New London, Connecticut. Preest was charged with murdering his skipper, Captain Goold, as the Hope lay at anchor on the Senegal River in Africa. According to Preest’s testimony, the chief mate then assumed command and later took on a cargo of slaves. En route from Africa to the West Indies, the Africans mutinied. In the ensuing struggle two members of the crew and eight slaves were killed. The ship sailed into Puerto Rico, where the Spanish authorities charged that it was illicitly trading with their possessions and confiscated both vessel and slaves.

In the same year (1764), Captain Faggot, commander of a New London brig from Connecticut owned by the Forseys, lost his life in a slave uprising at Goree. One report said that Captain Faggot had been killed when his enslaved Africans revolted at Goree off the Coast of Africa. A second report stated that the slaves freed themselves of their chains and the ship at night, killing the captain and two members of his crew.[18]

Captain Hopkins, in 1765, commanded a ship belonging to the Brown brothers of Newport and sailed from Africa to Antigua with a cargo of enslaved Africans. However, on the way, sickness depleted the crew and the captain was forced to use the Africans to man the ship. The Africans seized the opportunity to gain their freedom by rebelling and freeing their fellow Africans, who attacked the crew. After a bloody battle, the crew outnumbered, but armed with muskets, put down the rebellion after they had killed, wounded, or forced to jump overboard 80 of the Africans.[19]

Captain Rogers arrived in Barbados, and on the first day of October an insurrection of the slaves occurred (because they were let out of their irons). Thirteen jumped overboard, one was killed, and several others were wounded.[20]

Captain Toman of the sloop, Three Friends, arrived last Saturday in 87 days from Sierra Leone. Mr. Dunfield, a passenger, informed that last winter the whole crew was killed off the coast of Africa in a slave revolt and in which he was the only survivor because at the time of the insurrection he was not on board.[21]

Enslaved Africans in 1775 on board the Rhode Island ship, Thames, made a desperate effort to gain their freedom as the ship lay off the Guinea Coast. They were armed only with staves and chunks of woods when they revolted. The crew sought refuge behind a barricade on deck. After trying for forty minutes in a struggle of pitched battle to surround the barricade, all the male enslaved Africans jumped overboard.[22]

During the year 1785, a ship left Newport, belonging to Messrs. Seymour and Company of Grenada, for the West Coast of Africa. Twelve months later it was found by an English ship adrift upon the high seas. Her sails were gone and upon her decks crouched 15 emaciated Africans, “in a very wretched condition, having been long at sea.” The Africans had risen up and slain the captain and his crew, and then attempted to steer the ship back to Africa. Those remaining on board were carried to Bristol.[23]

In April 1789, a slave uprising occurred aboard the Felicity. Several days out from Cape Mount, on the coast of Africa, bound to Cayenne, enslaved Africans revolted, killing Captain William Fairfield and wounded several members of his crew. “We sail’d from Cape Mount the 13th of March with 35 Slaves On board, the 26th day of March the Slaves Rised upon us, At half past seven, my Sir and all hands being Forehead Except the Man at the helm and myself, three of the Slaves took Possession of the Caben, and two upon the quarter Deck, them in the Caben took Possession of the fire Arms, and them on the quarter Deck with the Ax and Cutlass and other Weapons. . .” The revolt was successfully put down by the remaining crew.[24]

Captain William Wignall of New England was killed in a slave revolt on board his slave ship in Africa in 1791.[25] In 1793, several Africans lost their lives in an attempt to seize the Nancy, commanded by Captain Cook.

In 1795 the ship, Willing Quaker, under Adamson as master, traded for Africans in Bonnana and the Isles de Los. They had taken on a cargo of Africans from the Rio Nunez. A bloody slave insurrection took place on the ship off the Coast of Africa. Forty Africans attacked the crew, killing a seaman, the first and second mates, and the captain, and seized control of the ship. The vessel drifted ashore near the mouth of the River Nunez where after a bloody battle lasting more than seven hours, another slave trader Mr. Lawrence engaged with the insurgents for 6 to 7 hours before capturing the vessel while still in African coastal waters.[26]

In 1796 enslaved Africans having freed themselves from their leg irons while in the hold, planned to kill the crew while they were on deck. The African cabin boy had forewarned of a slave insurrection, saving the ship Mary from total disaster. The enslaved Africans fought a pitched battle with the crew in an attempt to liberate themselves. Only after two of them had been drowned, one shot dead, and a sick slave trampled to death and four other wounded, was the uprising put down. According to an eyewitness account, 40 slaves, the cargo of the Rachell, rose up and killed the Captain, and the first and second mate.

In 1807 Captain Joshua Vial, master of the ship Nancy belonging to John Phillip and John Gardner of Charleston, South Carolina, reported several slave uprisings on his vessel. During the first insurrection three Africans were killed and another jumped overboard. In the second insurrection, Africans attempted again to take over the ship, but the crew was able to prevail because of their firearms.

On June 30, 1839, a group of enslaved Africans on the Amistad, led by an African named Joseph Cinque, mutinied, killing the captain and the cook. They ordered the surviving crew members, Jose Ruiz and Pedro Montez, to navigate the ship back to Africa. Fearing for their lives, Ruiz and Montez steered the ship toward the east by day, but at night steered back toward the United States. Eventually, the Amistad was intercepted by Captain Thomas R. Gedney of the United States naval vessel, Washington, and their African crews were brought to trial. During the trial, it was discovered that the 52 enslaved Africans were not born in the Western Hemisphere or imported prior to 1820, but had been illegally taken from Africa. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the enslaved Africans were free men and therefore were justified in rising up against their enslavers. In 1841, after a number of fruitless attempts on the behalf of the Spanish appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision, Joseph Cinque and the other Africans were granted their freedom and returned to Africa.

On October 27, 1841, the Creole sailed from Richmond with 135 slaves, bound for New Orleans. On board was Madison Washington, who had escaped to Canada in 1840 at age 25, but was captured when he returned to Virginia in search of his wife Susan, and was sold in Richmond and put on board the Creole to be taken to New Orleans, Louisiana. Several of the enslaved African Americans were on board including his wife Susan unbeknown to him. Susan looked more White than Black. Susan had been considered to be the faithful servant of her mistress, and traveled to places like White Sulphur Springs and Norfork on vacations. She was sold because her mistress believed she knew where Madison escaped too and refused to reveal his whereabouts.

By the ninth day at sea around Nov. 5th at least 14 enslaved males freed themselves in the forward hold of the ship. They waited for the proper moment to take action. That moment came during rough seas on the same day. The unshackled slaves went to the quarter deck, picking up all sorts of weapons as they moved along. In a surprise attack the officers and crew were quickly overcome. The crew had little time to react before the angry slaves were on them. During the fight, Madison Washington “plunged into it without any care for his own preservation or safety.” By one account, one slave was shot dead by an officer, who was quickly clubbed to death by Washington. Several slaves and crew members were wounded, and it is said that Washington dressed the wounds with his own hands, white other slaves kept an eye on their captives.

From this moment on the slaves took command of the Creole [and guns] with Madison Washington as Captain. He demanded that the ship be steered into British water. With loaded muskets pointed at their heads. On the tenth day Washington ordered the cook to “provide the best breakfast that the storeroom could furnish.” When the enslaved women entered to eat, Susan [Washington’s wife] appeared with them. She did not know that Madison was abroad the Creole. A tearful and noisy scene took place with Madison and Susan embracing and weeping. All the enslaved Africans abroad cheered and whooped. Washington allowed as much freedom of movement for the Whites as possible. After a major battle, he insisted that the Whites be treated kindly. On that same evening Whites made a desperate attempt to retake the vessel, and nearly lost their lives. The enslaved Africans drove the Whites to their cabins, threatening to kill them. Only Washington’s intervention prevented their deaths. When he said “Stop, no more blood,” and they obeyed. [27]

The Creole arrived at Nassau, New Providence, where they were all set free by the British authorities. The U.S. Secretary of State Daniel Webster demanded that the British return the slaves and the ship, and said that the slaves were murderers and pirates. The British refused because slavery had been outlawed in all of its possessions. The slaves were set free. This incident became an issue in the negotiation of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty and the British agreed to compensate the owners of the ship.

SUMMARY

Over three centuries, the transatlantic slave trade brought more than 20 million Africans alive to the New World. The total volume may have been as high as 100 million, of which only 20 million arrived alive. Forty percent of Africans imported into the New World went to Brazil, roughly 30 percent to the Caribbean, and about 20 percent to Cuba. Only 500,000 reached the British colonies of North America. This process was not without bloodshed and resistance.

Enslaved Africans waged a continuous struggle to be free, and insurrections on board slave ships demonstrate that Africans were not docile, but vigorously resisted capture and enslavement. The slave ship logs literally testify to thousands of bloody uprisings, revolts, mutinies, and other forms of resistance on board slave ships en route from Africa to North America.

On board slave ships Africans making the transatlantic voyage rebelled at every opportunity to achieve their freedom and liberty. These insurrections became more frequent as Africans were being taken from Africa, often as long as they could still see their homeland. While revolts were less frequent at sea, they did occur on a regular basis.

The journey from Africa to the New World was roughly three to four months where enslaved Africans were in the worst human condition of filth, excrement, blood, disease, and the most unsanitary condition possible. The following chronology of on board slave revolts described some of the individual cases of resistance during the greatest forced migration in human history. This forced migration was so great that by 1850 one third of all individuals of African origin were outside Africa. Because of this inhumane trade, Africans were dispersed all over the world. And, as a consequence, they made major contributions to the cultures of the New World.

Africans resisted on board slave ships during the Middle Passage; they resisted in the field and in the big house; African resisted by organizing slave revolts; they fought and died in the struggle to be free. Their actions and sacrifices laid the foundation for a continuous struggle to be free and this struggle continued when the African became the African American.

The following list is complied primarily from Eric Robert Taylor of on board slave revolts. The information about on board slave revolts was primarily derived from European and American shipping records. They included French records of slaving voyages included in the two volume of Mettas-Daget compendium, data on revolts; Johannes Postma revolts on Dutch ships; Elizabeth Donnan, Illustrative Documents on the transatlantic slave trade volumes 1-4. The most comprehensive database on ship board revolts was developed by David Eltis, Stephen d. Behrendt, David Richardson and Herbert S. The trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM (Cambridge, 1999).

CHRONOLOGY OF SHIPBOARD SLAVE REVOLTS, 1509-1865

1509 Nau Fiels de Deus (Portugal). Unsuccessful. 14-15.

1532 Misericordia (Portugal) Capt. Estevao Carreiro. Between Sao Tome Island and Elmina. All but three crew members killed. Successful-freedom achieved. Source: Vogt. Portuguese Rule 58; Vogt. Sao Tome-Principe, 461.

1571 (Spain?) West Indies. The enslaved Africans "slit the throats of the crew: Successful freedom achieved. Source: De la Ronciere, 4:82.

1641 (Netherlands). Attempted slave revolt on board slave ship. Source: Van den Boogaart and Emmer, 366.

1642 (Netherlands). Van den Boogaart and Emmer, 366.

1651 (England). On the Gambia River a slave revolt took place and all enslaved Africans and crew were killed. This revolt was successful. Recognizing the ship was lost, the captain committed suicide by blowing up the ship with all aboard. Source: Ligon, 57; Limbaugh and Rediker, 128-29.

1654 (England). Capt. Thomas Hiway. Middle Passage, 40 enslaved Africans killed; the revolt was unsuccessful. Source: Paige, 106.

1678 (France). Capt Ducasse. Middle Passage. All enslaved African killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Clarence Munford, American Crucible: Black Enslavement, White Capitalism and Imperial Globalization. Trenton, NJ: African World Press, 2009. 2:342.

1681 (England) Capt. Branfill. Cape Coast. Source: PRO, T 70, 19:49.

1683 Trompeuse (France) Capt. Jean Hamlin. West Indies. 3 enslaved Africans killed, slave revolt unsuccessful. Source: Fortescue 11:519-21: TST CD, 21557.

1685 Expedition (London, England) Capts. John Lambert and Hasting. Middle Passage. Unsuccessful. Source: PRO T 70, 12:15: TST CD, 9844.

1685 John Sarah (England). Gambia Unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 11:57, 61.

1685 Charlton (England) Capts. Paine and Browse. Whydah [Bight of Benin] 8 crewmen killed Successful. Source: PRO, T 70, 11:22, 102, 103.

1685 Koninck Salomon (Netherlands) Capt. Wllem Jansen Goes. 1 enslaved African killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Johannes Postma. Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge: New York, 1990, 166, 314, 379.

1686 [Sep.] Ann (England) Capt. Jobson Cambia. Source crewmen killed revolt unsuccessful. Revolt successful achieved freedom. Source: PRO, T 70, 11:60; TST CD 21027.

1686 [Sept.] Benjamin. Middle Passage. 1 crewman killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO. T 70, 12:163.

1686 [Sept.] Charlton (England) Capt Latton Accra [Gold Coast]. All crewmen killed and freedom was achieved. Source: David Eltis, Rise of African Slavery in the Americas, Cambridge, University Press, 2000, 226.

1687 Lomax (England) Middle Passage. Several enslaved Africans killed. The revolt was unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 12:130.

1889 (England). Capt. Osey. Successful-freedom? Source: PRO, T 70, 12:33.

1689 (France). Bijagos Island [Sierra Leone]. No one killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Brue, 106.

1690-1700: (Netherlands). At least 1 enslaved African killed; slave revolt unsuccessful. Source: Bosman, 365.

1690-1700: (Netherlands). African coast? 20 enslaved Africans killed; revolt

unsuccessful. Source: Willem Bosman, A New and Accurate description of the coast of Guinea, divided into the Gold, the Slave and Ivor. New York 365-66.

1691 Charles (England). Gambia [Senegambia]. 17 enslaved Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 11:69.

1693 Friedrich Wilhelm Emden, Branderburg). Capt. Jean le Sage. Between Whydah and Sao Tome Island. About 20 enslaved Africans killed in two revolts. Unsuccessful. Source: A. Jones, Brandenburg-Prussia" 288-89; A. Jones, Brandenburg Sources, 180-97; TST CD, 21950.

1693 Brine [England]. Gambia [Senegambia]. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Eltis, Rise of African Slavery, 229; TST CD, 9706.

1695 (France). Jakin [Bight of Benin]. "A number" of enslaved Africans killed; some Africans seized a longboat and escaped. Unsuccessful and successful and freedom for some. Source: Munford, 2:344.

1696 Adventure (London, England) Capts. Edwards and Stephen Dupont. Middle Passage. 28 enslaved Africans and 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Dow, 79-84; TST CD, 20173.

1698 Kobenhavns Bors (Denmark). Middle Passage? Many Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Westergaard, 146; Highfield, 19.

1699 Albion-Frigate (London, England). Capts. Edwards and Stephen DuPont. Middle Passage. 28 Africans and 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: George Francis Dow, Slave Ships and Slaving. Salem, 1927, 83.79-84; TST CD. 20173.

1699 Dragon (Topsham, England). (London, England). Capt. Henry Taylor. Gambia 7 Africans and 2 crewmen killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Tattersfield, 282-84.

1699 Cothrington (England). Capt. Brewer? Cambia River. Revolt successful— freedom? Source: PRO, T 70, vol. 1434.

1699 Rachel (Netherlands). 12 Africans and 1 crewman killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166.

1699? Late 17th century: (France). 25 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Gueye, 61.

1700 Marie Anne (France). Cape Mesurado. I crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Clarence Munford, White Capitalism and imperial globalization. Trenton NJ: African World Press, 2005 2:343.

1700 Aug. on board slave ship revolt. Capt. James Barbot. Source: Elizabeth Donnan, (ed) Documents Illustrative of the Slave Trade to America (Washington, 1930-5, I ; hereafter referred to as D.S.T., I, 463.

1701 Don Carlos (London, England). Capt. William Esterson. Middle Passage.

1701 Anna (Netherlands). Bijagos Islands [Sierra Leone]. Capt. Henry Hooper. Cape Coast [Gold Coast]. 36 Africans killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 2:4- 5, 5:45, 18:20, 26:24.

1702 Tyger/Tiger (England). Capt. Ralph Ash. Cape Coast Castle. About 40 Africans and 6 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 1463:30-31.

1702 (Netherlands) Whydah [Bight of Benin). Source: Munford, 2:344.

1703 Urban (England). Capt. Bornisher/Bannister and Edward Bolnd. Middle Passage? 23 Africans and 2 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 13:21; TST CD, 21139.

1703 Martha (London, England). Capt. Richard Marsh. Middle Passage. 2 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 13:23, 31; TST CD, 14988l.

1703 London (Bristol, England). Capt. Harris. Between Cape Coast Castle and Accra. 30 Africans and 3 crewmen killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, 70, 1463:66.

1703 Zon/Son (Netherlands). Capts. Jacob Cortse Visser and Samuel Bleeker. African Coast. 36 Africans killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 317, 378, 381; Postma, "Mortality," 248, "Dutch Participation," 208.

1703 Aug. The Typer. Capt Ralph Ash. On board slave revolt. Source: D. S. T., I, 463.

1704 Postillion (England). Capt. John Tozor. Gambia River. 31 Africans killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 14:66-6i7, 74, and vol. 1414

1703-4 Mairmaid (London, England). Capt. Roger Carnaby. Source: TST CD, 21165.

1704 Badine (La Rochelle, France). Capt. Defroudas. Source" TST CD. 33901.

1704 Dorothy (England). Middle Passage. Unsuccessful. Source: Colin Palmer, Human Cargoes, 55.

1704 Eagle (London). Capt. William Snelgrave Sr. Old Calabar River [Bight of Biafra]. 2 Africans and no crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: William Snelgrave, A New Account of Some parts of Guinea and the Slave Trade, (London, 1734) 164-68.

1705 Malbrough/Marlborough (England). Capts. Lawrence Prince and William Freake. Cape Coast [Gold Coast). 30-40 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 14:109; TST CD. 21180.

 

1706 (England). Capt. Richard Willis. Whydah [Bight of Benin] Unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 5:27.

1706 (La Rochelle, France). Middle Passage. Unsuccessful. Source: Munford, 2:344.

1707 Pindar (London, England). Capt. John Taylor. Cape Coast. Unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 5:33, 26:18; TST CD, 9755l

1707 Sherbrow (England). Capt. William Gill. Middle passage. 3 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 8:30, 31.

1708 Mary (England). Capt. Henry Hooper. Cape Coast. 36 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 2:4-5, 5:45, 18:20, 26:24.

1708 Dorothy (England). Capt. Thomas Ashby. Middle Passage. Unsuccessful. Source PRO, T 70, 8:35.

1708 Whidah Merchant (England), Capt. Owen. Source: TST CD, 20905.

1709 Fridericus Quartus (Nenmark). Capt. Phief. Slave Coast [Bight of Benin]. 1 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Rask, 75-76; TST CD, 35158.

1710-11Joseph (London, England). Capt. Thomas Ashby. Middle Passage. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 2:4-5, :45, 18:20, 26:24.

1713 Victorious Anne (England). Cape Coast [Gold Coast). All but 7 crewmen killed. The ship was blown up in the insurrection; revolt successful—freedom? Source: PRO, T 70, 5:90.

1714 Affirquain (Saint-Malo, France). Capt Yacinte Lodoye. Middle Passage. 10 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Jean Mettas, Repertoire des Expeditions Negriere Françaises on XVllle Siècle. 2 vols (Paris, 1978-1984) 2:683; here after Mettas.

1714 Duke of Cambridge (England). 80 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Palmer, "Slave Trade," 33.

1715 (South Carolina). Barra [Senegambia] revolt successful. Source: T 70, 6:2.

1715 Feb. 15. Societe (Nantes, France). Capt. Joseph Cavarau. Sao Tome [Bight of

Biafra). 14 Africans and crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: 1:35.

1715 June 2. Affriquain (Nantes, France). Capt. Rene Budan. Jakin [Bight of Benin] 10- 11 African and 3 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:31-32.

1715 July 30. Prudent (Nantes, France). Capt. Alexis Gamolt. Jakin (Bight of Benin. 39 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:39.

1715 Dec. Gracieuse (Nantes, France). Capt. Jean-Bernard Cazalis. St. Thomas West Indies. 10 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source Mettas, 1:39-40.

1715 Sonnesteyn (Netherlands). Capt. Hans Pronk. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 317, 380.

1716 June. Selby/Sylvia (Dartmouth, England) Capt. John Vennard/Vernard. Gambia River . Unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:126-29.

1728 Aurore (La Rochelle, France). Capt. Bonfils; revolt unsuccessful. 32 Africans killed. Source: Mettas, 2:242.

1728/29 Amitie (Nantes, France). Capt. Pierre Ricard; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:130.

1729 Clare (England). Capt. Murrell/Morrell/Murrel/Murel/Morrell. Cape Coast Castle (Gold Coast). Revolt successful, freedom achieved. Fog's Weekly Journal, Aug. 2, Sep. 6, 1729, Feb. 28, and June 20, 1730: Weekly Journal; the British Gazetteer, Aug. 2, Sept. 6, 1729, Feb. 28, June 20, 1730; Boston Weekly News-Letter, Sep. 18-25, 1729; Pennsylvania Gazette, Oct. 9-16, Jan. 6-13, 1730.

1729 Apr. Industry (Liverpool, England). Capt. James Williamson. Middle Passage. 1 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Weekly Journal; or, The British Gazetteer, July 5, 1729.

1729 Apr. Restoration (Liverpool, England) Capt. Boogs. Guinea Coast. All crewmen killed; revolt successful freedom achieved. Fog's Weekly Journal, Aug 2, Sept 6, 1729; Weekly Journal: or, The British Gazetteer, Sept. 6 1729; Pennsylvania Gazette, Jan. 6-13, 1730.

1729 May 26. Annibal (Lorient, France). Capt. Ch. De Kerguenel. Gambia River. 50 Africans and 4 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful, but freedom for some. I African took a lifeboat and several jumped into the river, but it is unknown whether any gained their freedom. Source: Mettas, 2:580-81; Hall, 87-91. See also subsequent rebellion on the same voyage, July 13 1729.

1729 July 13. Annibal. (Lorient, France). Capt. Ch de Kerguenel. Caye St. Louis, St. Domingue, West Indies. Revolt unsuccessful? Source: Mettas, 2:580-81; Hall, 87-91. See also earlier rebellion on the same voyage, July 13, 1729.

1729 Katherine (Boston, Mass). Capt. William Atkinson. Guinea Coast. Revolt unsuccessful—freedom for some. May have been an escape attempt. Source: Halasz, 8.

1729 Ann (Liverpool, England). Capt. Cadden. Guinea Coast. Revolt unsuccessful—freedom for some? Fog's Weekly Journal, Aug. 2, 1729.

1729 Jan. 1. Neptune (Nantes, France). Capt. Pierre Cadou, Between Principe and Sao Thome [Bight of Fiafra). 3 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:136.

1729 Jan. 19. Angelique (La Rochelle, France). Capt. Louis Herault. Whydah [Bight of Benin]. 2 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Soure: Mettas, 2:244.

1729 Apr. 16. Aimable Renotte (Nantes, Franxe). Capt. Jean-Baptiste de Coueteus. African Coast. 33 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:136.

1730 May. William. (Boston, Mass). Capt. Peter Jump. Anomanu [Gold Coast]. The press reported that the captain and all the crew were "murther'd by the Negro's they had on Board," but a letter written from Cape Coast Castle suggests there were 3 survivors. Revolt successful and freedom achieved. Source: PRO, T 70, 7:164-65; Pennsylvania Gazette, Nov. 19-26, Dec. 22-29, 1730: Read's Weekly Journal: or, British-Gazetteer, Jan. 23, 1731; London Evening Post, Jan. 19-21, 1731.

1730 June 6. Little George (Newport, RI). Capt. George Scott, Middle Passage. At least 1 African and 3 crewmen were killed. Revolt successful and freedom achieved. Some accounts suggest the Africans were re-enslaved by other Africans on shore. Source: Boston Weekly News-Letter. Apr. 22-29, Apr. 29-May 6, 1731; New York Gazette, May 3-10, 1731: Pennsylvania Gazette, May 6-13, 1731; Elizabeth Donnan, Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America, vol. III, 119-121, 207.

1730 July 20. Hare. (Liverpool, England). Capt. J. Sacheverel. Cape Coast (Gold Coast. 14 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Universal Spectator, and Weekly Journal, Jan. 16, 1731.

1730 Dec. 7. (Glasgow, Scotland). Anomabu [Gold Coast]. Most crewmen killed; revolt successful. Boston Weekly News-Letter, Sept. 2-9m 1731.

1730 Antonia (Liverpool, England). Capt. Hugh Crawford. Successful. Source: TST CD, 94504.

1730 Charming Lydia (London, England). Capt. Peter Poey. Source: TST CD, 76736

1731 Katherine (England). 2 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: D. Richardson, “Ship Board Revolts,” 74.

1731 Leusden (Netherlands). Capt. Bruiyn Harnensz; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 315, 379.

1731 Capt. George Scott of Rhode Island was returning from Guinea with a cargo of enslaved African when they rose up in rebellion. Source: News Letter, May 1731. The account was signed by George Scott. The first notice of this incident appeared in the News Letter, April 29, 173l; Joshua Coffin, An Account of some of the Principal Slave Insurrection, (New York, 1860), 14.

1731 William (Massachusetts). Capt Jump was surprised by Africans on board the ship in an uprising off the Coast of Africa. All his crew killed except 3; revolt successful. Source: Read’s Weekly Journal and British Gazetteer, January 28, 1731

1732 Apr. 7. (Newport, RI). Capt. Perkins. Guinea Coast. Several African and 1 crewman killed. 22 Africans escaped in boats but were apparently recaptured. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Rhode Island Gazette, Oct 25, 1732; Boston Weekly News-Letter, Oct. 19-27, Oct. 27-Nov. 2, 1732; Weekly Rehearsal, Oct. 30, 1732; Pennsylvania Gazette, Nov. 2-9, 1732; South Carolina Gazette, Dec. 2-9, 1732.

1732 Concorde (Vannes, France). Guinea Coast. 196 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Harms, 403.

1732 Parfaite (La Rochelle, France). Capt Elie Seignette. Grand Popo [Bight of Benin]. I crewman killed; revolt successful. Source: Mettas, 2:246.

1732 (Bristol, RI). All crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Source: Rhode Island Gazette, Oct. 25, 1732; Boston Weekly News-Letter, Oct. 27-Nov. 2-9, 1732; South Carolina and Gazette, Dec. 2-9, 1732.

1732-3Vryheyt/Vreyheid (Netherlands). Capt Jan Pietsz Gewelt. Source: Dutch in   the Atlantic Slave Trade, 319, 379; Postma, “Mortalitiy,” 248.

1732 Don Carlos. Capt. James Barbot, Jr. 28 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: News Letter, Sept. 7, 1732; South Carolina Gazette, Nov. 18, 1732.

1732 Capt. John Major of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, while on the coast of Guinea lost his life along with all of his crew. Revolt successful, freedom achieved. Source: News Letter, Sept. 7, 1732; South Carolina Gazette, Nov. 18, 1732; Coffin, “Principal Slave Insurrections,” p. 15.

1733 Feb. (England). Capt. Williams. Joar [Senegambia]. A “great part” of the crew killed. Revolt successful. Source: Moore, 156.

1733 Feb. (Portugal). Oncha. Most of the crewmen were killed; revolt successful. Africans held the ship for 5 days before being recaptured after a 24 hour engagement with English vessel. Source: Boston Weekly News-Letter. Apr. 17-19. 1733.

1733 Capt. Moore [first name not known] was attacked at midnight by a group of Africans with firearms. During the fighting the ship went ashore and the Africans escaped after killing most of the crew. Source: Weekly Rehearsal, Sept 10, 1733; also in News Letter, Set 6, “Extract of a letter from Capt. Moore, who sail’d from this Port for Guinea the beginning of last Winter, dated at St. Jago, one of the Cape de Verde Islands, July 20, 1733].

1733 Sept. 10. Saint Domingue (Nantes, France). Capt. Gosmant. African Coast. 3 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:165.

1733 Sept. 13. Diane. (Ile de Borbon, France). Capt. Dhermitte. Madagasar. 5 Africans and 1 crewman. Unsuccessful. Mettas, 2:223.

1733 Riane (Ile ede Bourbon, France). Dhermitte. Capt. Guillaume. Thomas. Whydah [Bight of Benin]; revolt unsuccessful. Mettas 1:164, 2:591-92.

1733 Renommee (Nantes, France). Capt. Jean Guestieau. Jakin [Bight of Benin]. Several enslaved Africans killed. Unsuccessful. Mettas 1:165, 2:591-92.

1734 Aventurier (Nantes, France). J. Shaghnessy. Whydah [Bight of Benin]. At least 40 enslaved Africans and 5 crewmen killed. Unsuccessful. Meettas, 1:166-67.

1734 Juba (Bristol, England). Capt. Christopher All [Bight of Benin] 4 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Read’s Weekly Journal; or British- Gazeetter, Nov. 9, 1734.

1734 Bordeaux, France. Middle Passage. Some crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Source: Pluchon, 187-88.

1735 Princess Caroline [England]. Middle Passage. Source: McGowan, “Origins of Slave Rebellions,” 84.

1735 De Hoop (Netherlands). Capt. Huybrecht Eversen. Source: Postma. Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 330, 383.

1735 Dolphin (London, England). African coast. All enslaved Africans and crewmen killed. The Africans apparently committed suicide by breaking into the powder magazine and blowing up the ship with all aboard. Successful? Source: Coffin, 14; Brawley, 43.

1735/35 Badine (Lorient, France). Capt. J. Bart. 6 crewmen killed. Unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:183.

1737 Phenix (Nantes, France). Capt. Joseph Negre. Little Popo [Bight of Benin]. 1 crewman killed. Unsuccessful. Mettas, 1:183.

1737 Mary (England). Capt. John Dunning. Middle Passage. 1 African killed. Unsuccessful. Source: PRO, C 103, vol. 130, Apr. 20, 1737; Behrendt, letter.

1737 Phenix (Le Havre, France). Capt. Martin Foache. African Coast. 20 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Mettas. 2:410.

1737 Lively (Liverpool, England) Guinea Coast. 12 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Wadsworth and Mann, 228-29.

1737 March 16. Prince of Orange. Capt. Japhet Bird. On board slave insurrection. Source: Coffin, “Principal Slave Insurrection,” p. 15.

1738 Galatee (La Rochelle, France) Capt. Jean Robin. Cape Sainte Apolonnied [Gold Coast]. Several Africans and 4 crewmen killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 2:257.

1738 Henriette (Lorient, France). Capt. Richard de Lamarre. Whydah. 42 Africans unaccounted for and 1 crewman killed. While some Africans were killed or drowned, others may have escape to shore; revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 2:599-600.

1738 Affriguain (Nantes, France). Capt. Nicolas Foure. Banana Islands [Sierra Leone]. 11 Africans and 2 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 1:205-6; Source Stein. French Slave Trade, 105-6-; Mousnier, 35-44.

1738/39 Jeune Christophe (Nantes, France). Capt. Anentoine Bucoudray. Guinea Coast. Up to 50 Africans freed themselves. Revolt successful? Mettas, 1:202.

1739 Gloire (Loroemt. France). Capt. Roquet. Middle Passage. 22 Africans and 7 crewmen. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:601.

1739 Princess Carolina (Charleston, SC) Capt. John Fumcan. Middle Passage. 3 crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Source: Boston Weekly News-Letter, Nov. 15-22, 1739.

1740 Nereide (Nantes, France). Capt. Luc Moyen. Middle Passage. 5 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:221.

1740 Expedition (London, England). Capt. James/John Bruce. Gambia [Senegambia]. Many Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Benezet, 126-29.

1741 Marie (Lorient, France). Capt Bigot de La Cante. Dissau [Sierra Leone]. 24 Africans killed. Some Africans escaped in a dinghy but were recaptured or killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:604-5.

1741 Afrikaanse Galey [Netherlands]. Cape P. de Veyle; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 321, 387.

1742 Grand Chasseur [Saint-Malo, France]. Capt. Julien Auffray Du Gue Lambert. Middle Passage. 40 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:i704.

1742 Saint Helene (Nantes, France). Capt. Germain Blanchard [Bight of Benin]. Some Africans and 2 crewmen killed; revolt successful and freedom for some. Source Mettas 1:260 2:608.

1742 Badine [Nantes, France]. Capt. Martin Lissarague. Epe [Bight of Benin]. 7 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:261.

1742 Mary [London, England]. Capt. Nathaniel Roberts? Gambia River [Senegambia]. All but 2 crewmen killed; revolt successful and freedom for some. South Carolina Gazette, Oct. 24; Boston Gazette, Dec. 20, 1743; Boston New Letter. Dec. 22, 1743.

1742 Jolly Batchelor. [Sierra Leone]. Africans on shore attacked the ship and freed the Africans in the hold. Revolt successful. Source: Elizabeth Donnan, Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America, vol. III.

1742 Maure (Nantes, France). Capt. Georges Richard. Whydah [Bight of Benin]. 17 Africans killed and 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful Source: 1:268.

1743 Notre-Dame de Bonne Garde (Nantes, France) Capt. Etienne Fessard, Middle Passage. 9-11 Africans and 3 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:266-67.

1743 Pere de Famille. (Nantes, France). B. Guyot. Middle Passage. Some Africans and 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas 1:266-67.

1743 Jeannette (Nantes, France). Capt. Julien Hiron. Epe [Bight of Benin]. 2 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:280.

1744 Jan-June. Mercure (Nantes, France). Capt. Yves Armes. Whday [Bight of Benin]. Unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:290.

1744 Oct.6. Duc de Gretagne [Bordeaux, France]. Capt. Chevalier de la Bretonniere. Annobon Island {Bight of Biafra]. 4 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas 2:22.

1745 Favorite (Lorient, France). Capt. Trublet. Middle Passage. 6-7 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:611-12.

1747 (Rhodes, Island). Capt. Bear/Beers? Cape Coast Castle [Gold Coast]. All but 2 crewmen killed; revolt successful. Source: Boston Weekly News-Letter, May 7, 1747; Pennsylvania Gazette, May 21, 1747.

1748 Scipio (Liverpool, England). Capt. James Steward. African Coast. Revolt successful—ship blown up. Lloyd’s List, Jan. 5, 1747; TST CD, 90227.

1748 Thomas and Ellinor (Liverpool, England). Capt. Thomas Rawlinson; revolt successful. Source: TST CD, 90233.

1749 Jan. Polly (New York, NY). Capt. William Johnson, West Indies [intra-American slave transport]. All crewmen killed; revolt successful. Africans recaptured and jailed. Pennsylvania Gazette, Jan. 31, 1749, July 27, 1749.

1749 May 14. Auguste (Saint-Malo, France). Capt. Noel Pinou des Praires. Melinda [West Central Africa]. 7 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:710-11.

1749 May 17. Prince d’Orange (Nantes, France). Capt. Jaques Broban. (Sao Tome Island Bight of Biafra). 36 Africans and 3 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: 2:287.

1749 July 20. Noe (La Rochelle, France). Capt. Thomas Palmier. Fernando Po Islands (Bight of Biafra), 63 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: 2:287.

1749 Sept. Lamb (England). Capt. Timothy Anyon. Middle Passage. 14 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Lloyd’s List. Dec. 12, 1749; TST CD, 90226.

1749 Brownlow (England). Capt. Richard Jackson. 3-4 Africans and 1 crewman killed. Unsuccessful. Source: Newton, 22; TST CD, 90226.

1749 Cheval Marin (Nantes, France). Capt. Bernard Desas. Unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:304.

1750 Mar. Willingmind (England). Capt. Appleton. Sherbro River [Sierra Leone]. Revolt successful. Source: Lloyd’s List. Mar. 26, 1750.

1750 Apr.14. Ann (Liverpool, England). Capt Benjamin Clark. Cape Lopez (Bight of Biafra). At least 3 crewmen killed; revolt successful—freedom achieved. Source: Pennsylvania Gazette, Aug. 9, 1750; Boston Post-Boys, Aug. 13, 1750; Lloyd’s List, Aug. 28, 1750; Maryland Gazette, Nov. 14, 1750: TST CD, 17243.

1750 May 8. King David (Bristol, England). Capt. Edmund Holland. Near Guadeloupe, West Indies. 15-17 crewmen killed; revolt successful. Africans recaptured by a ship sent in pursuit. Boston News-Letter, June 21. Sept. t, 1i750; Boston Post-Boy, June 24, 1750; Pennsylvania Gazette, July 5, 1750; Lloyd’s List, July 13, 1750 Maryland Gazette, Nov. 14, 1750; TST CD, 17243.

1750 May 15, Diligente (Nantes, France) Capt. Charles Le Breton. Revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 1:324-25.

1750 June 20. Louise Marguerite (Nantes, France). Capt Etienne Fessard. Whydah [Bight of Benin]. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:328.

1750 Sept. 17. Samuel-Marie (Dunquerque, Frane). Capt. J. B. Maginel. Cerbera River [Sierra Leone]. 13 Africans and 4 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:149-50.

1750 Oct. 5-10. Wolf (New York, NY). Capt. Gurnay Wall. Near Anomabu [Gold Coast]. 1 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. A group of Africans escaped escaped aboard a yawl were soon recaptured. Source: Wax, “Philadelphia Surgeon,” 465-68, 484-86.

1750 Nov. 7. Jamaica Packet (Bristol, England). Capt. George Merrick. Several crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:334.

1750 Nov. 11. Henriette (Nantes, France). Capt. Antoine Rouille. Whydah [Bight of Benin]. 14 Africans and 1 crewman killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:334.

1750 Dec. 1. Sultane (La Rochelle, France). Capt. Avrillon. Goree Island [Senegambia] 230 Africans and 7 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Pruneau de Pommegorge, 113-17; Searing, 147-48; Mettas. 2:295.

1750 Esperance (Saint-Malo, France). Capt. Ph. Hamon Du Courchamp. Some Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: 2:712-13.

1750 [France]. African Coast. All but 2 crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Source: E. Martin, 24.

1750 Jan.16. Hector (Nantes, France). Capt. Jean Honoraty. Goree Island (Senegambia). 3 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:342-43.

1750 Cerf (Nantes, France). Capt. Luc Lory. African Coast; revolt successful. Source: Mettas, 1:319.

1750 May 28. (Liverpool, England). On board slave revolt. Source: D. S. T., 485.

1751 Parfaire (Saint-Malo, France), Capt. Pierre Harson. Guinea Coast. 3 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source. Mettas 2:716-17.

1751 Oct. 12. Sirene (Nantes, France). Sept. Jacques Souchay. African Coast. 199 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:349.

1751 Nov. 7. Sauveur (Saint-Malo, France). Capt. Joseph Gardon Du Bournay. African Coast. 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:715.

1751 Grenadier (Netherlands). Capt. Jan van Kerkhoven. African Coast. No one killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166; TST CD, 10621.

1751 Middelburgs Welvaren (Netherlands). Capt Jacob Gerritsen. Guinea Coast. 213 Africans and no crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 167-68, 337, 383.

1752 Feb-May. Heureux (Nantes, France) Capt. Toby Clarc. Principe Island [Bight of Biafra]. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas 1:348.

1752 Oct. 14. Marlborough (Bristol, England). Capt. Robert Codd. African Coast. 100 Africans and at least 27 crewmen killed. One report suggest “upwards of a hundred” enslaved African were drowned in a dispute between Bonny and Gold Coast Africans arising from the revolt. Revolt successful. Source: Lloyd’s List, Feb. 6, 1753; Feliz Farley’s Bristol Journal, Feb. 3-10, 1753, Mar. 24-31, 1753; Maryland Gazette, May 10, 1753.

1752 Nov. Addlington (England). Capt. John Perkins. Bassa [Windward Coast]. 19 Africans and 5 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Newton 66, 69-70.

1752 Adventure. (England). Capt. Belson. Sierra Leone. Revolt successful. Source: Rathbone, 17.

1752 Benjamin (London, England). African Coast. 1 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Clarkson 311.

1753 Mar. 14. Saint Philippe (Nantes, France). Capt. Guillaume Denis Hamon. Middle Passage. 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:374-75.

1753 Marechal de Sare (La Rochelle, France). Capt. Midy. Whydah [Bight of Benin], 47 Africans and 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:298 -99.

1753 Aug. 5. Patientia [Denmark]. Capt. Ole Eriksen. Between Elmina and Cape Coast (Gold Coast), 3 crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Source: Nerregard, Danish Settlement, 89-90; Norregard, “Slaveoproet,” 23-44.

1753 Two Friends (Rhodes, Island). Capt. Abraham Hammett/Hamlet/Hamblet. Cape Coast [Gold Coast]. The slave traders “lost the best of what they had.” Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mason, 339; Jensen, 491;. Donnan 3:144, 4:310; TST CD, 36156.

1753/54 York (London, England). Capt. William Mercier. TST CD, 25021.

1754 May 12. Levrette (Nantes, France). Capt. Julien Marchais. 2 days out from Principe Island. 4 Africans and 15 crewmen killed. Successful-recaptured. Source: Mettas, 1:380-81, 382; Eltis, Rise of African Slavery, 233.

1754 Sept. Swallow (Lancaster, England). Capt. Robert Dobson. Gambia. 22 Africans and 5 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 30:81; TST CD, 24016.

1754 Nov.17. Finette (Nantes, France). Capt. Michel Bange. Bissau (Sierra Leone). 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:395-96.

1755 Jubilee (England). Capt. Smith Anomabu (Gold Coast). All but 4 crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Source: Sylvanus Urban, (ed.) Gentleman’s Magazine, XXIV, 1754).

1755 July 20. Saint Joseph (Saint Malo, France). Capt. Fr. Josselin Loisement. Guinea Coast. 3 crewmen killed; revolt successful. Source: 2:725-26.

1755 Sept. 7. Printemps (La Rochelle, France). Capt. Jean Elie Giraudeau. I crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:303.

1755 Oct. 11. Jeune Mars (Nantes, France). Capt. Jean Laurent Robert. Middle Passage. 3 crewmen killed revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:411.

1755 Belle Judith (Nantes, France). Source: Pluchon, 187.

1755 Charming Jenny / Charming Elizabeth (London, England. Capt. John Allman. Revolt successful; Africans recaptured? Source: TST CD, 27240.

1756 July 6. (England) Capt. Stirling. Gambia River [Senegambia]. 3 crewmen killed; revolt successful. Source: PRO, T 70, 30:163, 166; PRO, T 70, vol. 1694, letter dated July 24, 1756, and Sept. 16, 1756.

1756 July. Jane (New York, NY). Capt. Alexander Hope. Middle Passage. 1 African and 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Pennsylvania Gazette, Sept 30, 1756; Williams, 480: TST CD, 25030.

1756 Philadelphia (Netherlands). Capt. Jan Menkerveld. African Coast. No one killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 339, 385.

1756 Vliegende Faam (Netherlands). Capt. Pieeter de Mor. African Coast. 11 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful—freedom for some. 22 of the African on board were reported missing following the revolt. Source: Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 344, 385.

1756/57 Penelope (Liverpool, England). Capt. William Wiatt. Source: TST CD 90490.

1756/57 Thomas (Liverpool, England). Capt John Whiteside. Revolt successful; Africans recaptured? Source: TST CD, 90660.

1757 Feb. Black Prince (England). Capt. Peter Bostock. Gambia River [Senegambia]. Revolt unsuccessful, but freedom for some. Source: PRO, T i70, 30:179-80: PRO, T 70, vol. 1694, letter dated Feb. 14, 1757.

1757 Drie Gezusters (Netherlands). Capt. Maartin Stam. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 325, 386.

1757 Philadelphia (Netherlands). Capt. Jan Menkenveld. African Cast. No one killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade. 166. 339, 385.

1757/58 Mears (Liverpool, England). Capt. Chris Berrill. Source: TST CD, 90556.

1758 Jan 14. Two Sisters (Bristol, England). Capt. Robert Cowie. African Coast. 3 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: D. Richardson, Bristol, 3:111.

1758 Jan/Feb, Rainbow (Liverpool, England). Capt. Joseph Harrison. Middle Passage. 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Williams, 488-89.

1758/59 William (Liverpool, England). Capt. Blackburn Wilcock. Source: TST CD 90587.

1759 Jan. 12. Perfect (Liverpool, England). Capt. William Potter. Mana [Sierra Leone]. At least 5 crewmen killed. Revolt successful. At least some Africans were recaptured on shore by local Africans. Source: Williams, 492-93, 666; E. Martin, 106; TST CD, 90744; Edmund B. D’Auvergne, Human Livestock. (London, 1933), p. 73.

1759 Sept. Rebecca (England). Capt. Ross. Gambia (Senegambia) 2 revolts; unsuccessful. Source: PRO T 70, 30:315, 321.

1759 Midelburgs Welvaren (Netherlands). African Coast. No one killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166.

1759 Shark (Liverpool, England). Capt. James Lowe. Source TST CD 90727.

1759/60 Nanny (Liverpool, England). Capt. James McDougall. Source TST CD, 90741.

1760 Oct. 12. Ross (England). Capt. Lear. Gambia River (Senegambia). Revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 30:386.

1761 June. Agnes (New York, NY). Capt. Nicholls. Guinea Coast. 40 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: New York Gazette, June 15, 1761; Boston News-Letter, June 25, Aug. 20, 1761; TST CD, 25327.

1761 Nov. Mary (Lancaster, England). Capt. Samuel Sands. Gambia River; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 30:436. See also another revolt on the same voyage, Dec. 1761.

1761 Mary (Lancaster, England). Capt. Samuel Sands. Gambia River Most cremen killed; revolt successful. Source: PRO, T 70, 30:436; Meseyside Maritime Museum Transatlantic Slave Trade Exhibit: Lloyd’s Evening Post and British Chronicle, Jan. 4-6, 1762; Lloyd’s List, Jan. 5, 1762; Elder, 53, 55, 175; also earlier rebellion on same ship Nov. 1761.

1761 Thomas (Massachusetts). Capt. Capt. Day. African Coast. 1 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Boston News-Letter, Sept. 24, 1761; New York Gazette, Sept. 28, 1761.

1762 Oct. 25. Phoenix (London, England). Capt. William Macgachan. Middle Passage. 50 Africans and no crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Pennsylvania Gazette, Nov. 11, 1762; New York Gazette, Nov. 15, 1762; Boston News-Letter and New England Chronicle, Nov. 18, 1762; Newport Mercury, Nov. 22, 1762 Lloyd’s Evening Post and British Chronicle, Dec. 29-31, 1762; Lloyd’s List, Dec. 31, 1762; Annual Register, 1762, 117-18.

1762 Nov. (Newport, Rhode Island). Capt George Frost. Gabon River [Bight of Biafra]. 30 Africans and 2 crewmen killed; revolt successful; African recaptured. Source: Newport Mercury, June 6, 1763; Providence Gazette and Country Journal, June 11, 1763; New York Gazette, June 13, 1763; Pennsylvania Gazette, June 16, 1763.

1762 Dove (Liverpool, England). Capt. Brown. Gambia River [Senegambia]. Some Africans and 2 crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Source: PRO, T 70, 31:32; Lloyd’s List, Apr. 1, 1763.

1762 Vr. Johanna Cores (Netherlands). Capt. Willem de Molder. African Coast. 24 Africans killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 345, 385.

1762 Pearl (Liverpool, England). Capt. Pollet. At least 20 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Clarkson, 206-8.

1763 Jan. 20. Nossa Seuhoa de Agoa de Lupe e Bom Jesuz dos Navegantes (Portugal). Source: Joseph Miller, Way of Death, 410.

1763 Feb. 22. Black Prince (Bristol, England). Capt. William Miller. Cape Coast [Gold Coast]. No one killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Journal of an Intended Voyage, entry dated Feb. 22, 1763; rebellion on the same slave ship Mar. 4, 1963.

1763 Feb. Ann (London, England). Capt. David Adam. Pittagarry [Gold Coast]. Revolt successful. Source: PRO, T 70, vol. 1263, entry 179.

1763 Feb. (Liverpool, England). African Coast. Revolt successful. Source: Newport Mercury, June 6, 1763; Providence Gazette and Country Journal, June 11, 1763; New York Gazette, June 13, 1763; Philadelphia Gazette, June 16, 1763.

1763 Mar.4. Black Prince (Bristol, England). Capt. William Miller. Middle Passage. No one killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Journal of an Intended Voyage, entry dated Mar. 4, 1763; earlier rebellion on the same voyage, Feb. 22, 1763.

1763 Frere et la Souer (Dunquerque, France). Capt. Du Colombier. African Coast. 2 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:151.

1763 Dec. 4. Africa (Amsterdam, Netherlands). Gold Coast. At least 1 crewman killed; revolt successful. Source: Mettas, 1:436.

1763/64 Croissant (Nantes, France). Capt. Devigues. African Coast. 14 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:428.

1763/64 Entreprenant (Nantes, France). Capt Lecerf. Little Popo [Bight of Benin]. Some Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:428.

1764 Feb. 17. Fontelle (Saint-Malo, France). Capt. J. Esturmy. Loango [Central Africa]. 3 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: 2:727-28.

1764 Mar. (England). Barbados, West Indies. 2 Africans and all but 4 crewmen killed; revolt successful. After 10 days in control of the vessel and attempts by two ships to recapture the Africans were recaptured with the aid of a third vessel. Source: Newport Mercury, May 21, 1764; Pennsylvania Gazette, May 31, 1764.

1764 Apr.24. Phoenix (Nantes, France). Capt. Joseph Mary. Bissau [Sierra Leone]. 2-4 Africans killed and 1 crewman killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:440-41.

1764 May. Gallem (England). Capts. Pye and Mackey. West Indies. Revolt successful. Source: Lloyd’s List, June 5, 1764; TST CD 24557.

1764 May. Hope (New London, CT). Capt George Taggart. Middle Passage. 7-8 Africans and 1-2 crewmen killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: New York Gazette, Aug. 13, 1764, Mar. 11, 1765 Massachusetts Gazette Extraordinary; Aug 16, 1764; Pennsylvania Gazette, Aug. 16, 1764, Mar. 21, 1765; New London Gazette, Aug. 17, 1764; Newport Mercury, Aug. 20, 1764, Apr. 8, 1765; Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser, Aug. 20, 1764, Mar. 4, Apr. 1, 1765; Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News-Letter, Aug. 30, 1764, Mar. 7, Mar.28, 1765; D’Auvergne, Human Livestock, 73.

1764 Aug. (England) Gambia River [Senegambia]. Revolt successful. Source: Daniel Littlefield, Rice and Slaves: Ethnicity and the Slave Trade in Colonial South Carolina. Baton Rouge, Louisiana University, 1981, 21.

1764 Nov, 5. Comte d’Azemar (Nantes, France). Capt. Mathurin David. African Coast. 1 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:439-40. Earlier revolt on same voyage, Nov. 5, 1764.

1764 Dec. Coueda (Nantes, France). Capt. Jean Honnoraty. Middle Passage. 51 Africans and crewman killed. Source: Mettas, 1:441-42.

1764 Dec. 27. Jolly Prince (Bristol, England). Capt. Patrick Halloran. Windward Coast [Liberia]. All crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Lloyd’s List, June 21, 1765.

1764 (Bristol, Rhode Island). [Sierra Leone]. All but one crewman killed. Revolt successful. Source: Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser, Aug. 19, 1765; Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News-Letter, Aug. 22, 1765.

1764 Eenigheid (Netherlands). Capt. Daniel Pruynelaar. African Cast. No one killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade 166, 345, 386.

1764 Johnson (Liverpool, England). Capt. Robinson. [Central Africa]. “Capt. Robinson, the Doctor and his Mates, together with 17 of the Crew, were poisoned by the Negroes.” Revolt unsuccessful. Lloyd’s List, Jan. 29, 1765; TST CD, 91052.

1764 Sisters (Liverpool England). Capt. Richard Jackson. African Coast. 2 Africans killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 345, 386.

1764 Vr. Johanna Cores (Netherlands). Capt. Jan Sap. African Coast. 2 Africans killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 345, 386

1764 In June, the sloop Adventure, based in Rhode Island or New London, was overthrown by Africans while trading for Africans at Sierra Leone. Revolt successful; freedom achieved. Source: Gazette Jan. 5, 1764; Feb. 5, 1764; News Letter, Sept. 20, and Oct. 25, 1764.

1764 Captain of a New London brig from Connecticut lost his life in a slave uprising at Goree; revolt successful. Source: Extraordinary, August 16, 1764.

1764 Aug. [England] Gambia River. Revolt successful—freedom. Source: Littlefield, 21.

1764/65 Galam (Liverpool, England). Capts. John Hill and Sherland. Revolt successful; Africans recaptured. Source: TST CD, 92309.

1764/65 Haast u Langzaam (Netherlands). Capt. Jan Menkenveld. Source: TST CD. 10659.

1765 Aug. 28. Sally (Providence, Rhode Island). Capt. Esek Hopkins. Middle Passage. 10 Africans and no crewmen killed. Revolt unsuccessful. John Carter Brown Library, Brown Family business Records, box 536, folder 9; box 643, folder 7 (entries dated Aug. 28, Sept. 19, Oct 14, 1765: Rhode Island State Archives, Moses Brown Papers, series 2, folder 5; Newport Mercury, Nov. 18, 1765; Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser, Nov. 25, 1765; Massachusetts Gazette, Nov. 28, 1765.

1765 Oct. 1. Othello (Newport, Rhode Island). Capt. Thomas Rogers. Desirade Island, Guadeloupe, West Indies. 1 African killed. 13 Africans jumped overboard and swam for shore; 1 of these was killed, 3 others wounded. Revolt unsuccessful—freedom for some. Rhode Island State Archives, Petitions to the Rhode Island General Assembly, vol. 12, doc. 14; Pennsylvania Gazette, Nov. 14, 1765; Newport Mercury, Nov. 18, Nov. 25, 1765; Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser, Nov. 25, 1765; Massachusetts Gazette, Nov. 28, 1765.

1765 Mary (England). Capt. Dvis. Gambia River. All but 2 crewmen killed; revolt successful. Source: Lloyd’s List. Feb. 14, 1766; TST CD, 25384.

1765/66 Adelaide de Puisegor (Nantes, France). Capt. Massey de Breban. Angola. Revolt successful. Multiple revolts may have occurred during the voyage. Source: Mettas, 1:464

1766 Henriette (Nantes, France). Capt. Durocher Sorin. African coast. All but 4 crewmen killed. Successful; freedom for some. In spite of the assistance of three nearby vessels, a group of Africans succeeded in taking the ship dingy and rowing for land; some were recaptured, some apparently escaped. Source: Mettas, 1:458, 473.

1766 Feb. (British North America). Capt. Jones. Bermuda (intra-American slave transport). 3 crewmen killed. Revolt successful—recaptured. Source: New York Gazette, May 12, 1766; Virginia Gazette, May 23, 1766.

1766 June. (Virginia). Capt. Watson Gambia River. All crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Source: New York Gazette, Aug. 18, 1766; New London Gazette, Aug. 22, 1766; Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter, Aug 28, 1766.

1766 Jeune Catherine (Nantes, France). Capt. G. Duval. Several Africans killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:473.

1766 Debut (La Rochelle, France). Capt Th. Latouche. Loango [Central Africa]. 8 Africans and 1 crewman killed, the latter apparently on another French ship coming to the aid of the Debut. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:309.

1767 Badine (Nantes, France). Capt. J. J. Poisson. Angola. 14 Africans and 2 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:486.

1767 Industry. (Liverpool, England). Capt. John Erskine. Denby River [Sierra Leone]. Revolt successful; freedom achieved. Source: Lloyd’s List, July 17, 1767: TST CD, 91098.

1767 Marie (Nantes, France). Capt. J. Cheneau. Some Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:487-88.

1767/69 Tryal (Liverpool, England). Capt. Price. West Indies. 14 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Clarkson, 202-4.

1768 Jan. Saint-Pierre (Nantes, France). Capt. J. Olivier. Biafra Coast. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:494-95.

1768 July 19. Saint Nicolas (France). Capt. Balai de l’Isle. Windward Coast. 43 Africans and 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:46.

1768 Marie Anne (Nantes, France). Capt. Henry Lemarie Delasalle. Gabon River [Bight of Biafra] 3 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:511.

1768 Esther (London, England). Capt. Robert Dann. Source: TST CD 77953.

1768 Africa (Bristol, England). Capt. John Morgan. New Calabar River [Bight of Biafra]. 3 Africans and no crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Clarkson, 221-22, 224; TST CD, 17661.

1768/69 Jenny (Liverpool, England). Capt. Richard Webster. TST CD, 91474.

1769 Jan. 11. Nancy (Liverpool, England). Capt. Roger Williams. New Calabar [Bight of Biafra] 6 Africans killed; revolt successful. Source: Williams, 549; Clarkson, 199.

1769 Sept. 27. Concorde (Nantes, France). Capt. Carre. Scassery (Sierra Leone) 2 crewmen killed. Revolt successful for some 3 of the 48 Africans were later recaptured. Source: Mettas, 1:516-17, 519, 2:792.

1769 Roy Morba (Nantes, France). Capt. Adrien Doutrau. Middle Passage. Unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:518-19.

1769 Dec. 3. Delight (Liverpool, England). Capt. William Milroy. Little Cape         Mount [Windward Coast]. 18-30 Africans and 9 crewmen killed. Successful. The Africans were overcome after a 4-hour battle with a nearby ship in which the Africans killed 1 member of the pursuing ship’s crew. Virginia Gazette (PD), May 24, 1770; New York Journal, or General Advertiser, June 7, June 21; TST CD. 91564.

1769 True Blue (Liverpool, England). Capt Joshua Hutton. Bight of Benin. 4 crewmen killed; revolt successful. Source: Clarkson, 204, 221; Joseph Inikori, “Measuring,” 67; TST C. 91088.

1769 Zanggodin (Netherlands). Capt. Jan van Sprang. African coast. 21 Africans who went ashore were recaptured by local Africans. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Postman, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 347, 386.

1769/70 Saint-Nicolas (Bordeaux, France). Capt. Dellouan. Goree Island [Senegambia]. 40 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. 40 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:50.

1769/70 Unity (Liverpool, England). Capt. Robert Norris. Source: TST CD, 91567.

1770 Jan. Union (Nantes, France). Capt. J. L. Ruellau. Windward Coast. 1 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:517.

1770 Apr. 19. Brocanteur (Saint-Malo, France). Capt. Basmeule de Liesse. Gabon River [Bight of Biafra]. 19 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:747.

1770 Duke of Bridgewater (Liverpool, England). Cap. Thomas Adamson. African  Coast. Revolt Successful. Source: TST CD, 91671; Inikori, “Measuring,” 68.

1770 Guinese Vriendsclap (Netherlands). Capt. Jan Grim. 5 Africans killed; revolt successful. Ship recaptured with the aid of a Dutch warship. Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 168, 329, 383.

1770/71 African Queen (Liverpool, England). Capt. Thomas North. Kissey River [Sierra Leone]; 10 crewmen killed. Revolt successful—freedom for most. Source: TST CD, 91687.

1770/71 True Blue (Liverpool, England). Capts. Richard Griffith and William Goad. Source: TST CD, 91643.

1771 Saint Rene (Saint-Malo, France) Capt. Chateau-briand, sieur du Plessis. Middle Passage. Some Africans and 1 crewman killed. Unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:750-51.

1771 Dec. 30. Cupidon (Nantes, France). Capt. Jean Arnout. African coast. 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:546.

1771 July. Pacifique (La Havre, France). Capt. J. P. Bonfils. Guinea Coast. 4 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:441.

1771 Necessaire (Rochefort, France). Capt. Badiaux. Quila [Sierra Leone]. Some Africans and all but 4 crewmen killed. Africans who would not participate were killed by the insurrectionists. Revolt successful—freedom for all except 2 who were recaptured. Source: Mettas, 2;318-19.

1771 Intelligente (La Rochelle, France). Capt. Fr. Hubert. 18 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:315-16.

1771 Two Brothers (Liverpool, England). Capt. Hugh Glenn. Source: TST CD, 91735.

1771 (France) Middle Passage. Some Africans and all crewmen killed. Revolt successful. The ship was found drifting with only 9 Africans alive on board. Source: Virginia Gazette (PD), April, 18, 1771.

1771 (France) Middle Passage/West Indies. 300 Africans and all but six crewmen killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Pluchon, 188.

1771 Warwick Castle (London, England). 3 revolts. All unsuccessful. Source: Clarkson, 214-16.

1771 Mar. Exeter (London, England). Capt. Savory. Camaranco [Sierra Leone]. All but 1 crewman killed. Successful for most. About 20 Africans recaptured. Source: Pennsylvania Gazette, June 25, 1772; Virginia Gazette (PD), July 16, 1772, Aug. 27, 1772.

1772 Oct. (Liverpool, England). Middle Passage. All but 1 crewman killed. Successful. Africans recaptured after a 4-hour battle with a nearby ship. Source: Pennsylvania Gazette, Dec. 9, 1772; Virginia Gazette (PD). Dec. 24, 1772.

1772 (Martinique/France). Middle Passage. All crewmen killed; revolt successful. Pennsylvania Gazette, Dec. 9, 1772; Virginia Gazette (PD), Dec. 24, 1772.

1772 Nov. (New York, NY). West Indies. All crewmen killed. Successful. Source: Virginia Gazette (PD), Nov. 26, 1772.

1772/73 Robert (Liverpool, England). Capt. Ireland Grace. Source: TST CD, 91815.

1773 Jan. 24. New Britannia (England). Capt. Stephen Deane. Gambia River [Senegambia]. 222 Africans and 13 crewmen killed. The Africans broke into the powder magazine and, when defeat seemed imminent, blew up the ship, killing all aboard. Unsuccessful/successful? Source: Gentleman’s Magazine, Oct. 1773; Virginia Gazette, Dec. 23, 1773, Jan. 6, 1774; Searing, 156; Joseph Inikori, “Measuring,” 69.

1773 Jeune Louis (La Rochelle, France). Capt. David Saint Pe. Cape Mount [Liberia]. Unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:317-18.

1773 Bristol (England). Bonny [Bight of Biafra). Most of the crew killed, a few left alive to navigate the vessel. Successful. Source: Deschamps, 128.

1773 Industry (London, England). Capt. Gogart. Middle Passage. All but 2 crewmen killed. Successful. Source: Joseph Inikori, “Measuring,” 69; TST CD. 24700.

1773 (France) Guinea Coast. About 200 Africans and most of the crewmen killed. Revolt successful. All on board were killed when the mate decided to blow up the ship. Virginia Gazette (PD), June 17 1773; Virginia Gazette (WR), June 17, 1774.

1774 July, Aimable Claire (Nantes, France). Capt. Thomas Butler. 2 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:572.

1774 Aug. John (New York) Capt. Daniel Darby. Isles de Los [Sierra Leone] “A number of Africans and 1 crewman killed; revolt successful. Pennsylvania Gazette, Nov. 16, 1774: Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News-Letter, Dec. 1774; TST CD, 25091.

1774 Diane (Nantes, France). Capt. Jean Arnoult. Corisco Island [Bight of Biafra]. Successful—freedom achieved. Source: 1:576-77; Stein, French Slave Trade. 104-5.

1774 Oct. (France) Senegal? [Senegambia]. All crewmen killed. The Africans spared the lives of a white woman and a passenger on board. Successful. All but 3 Africans were later killed then the ship foundered. Virginia Gazette (DH), Jan. 7, 1775.

1774 Nov. King Herod (British, North America) Capt. Steel. Benin [Bight of Benin]. Unsuccessful Virginia Gazette (DH), Feb 25, 1775.

1774 Sally II (England) African Coast. Successful. Source: Elder, 175.

1774 Zanggodin (Netherlands). Capt. J. H. Hof. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 347, 384.

1774/75 Lively (Liverpool, England). Capts. Thomas Beynon and Davies. Source: TST CD, 91716.

1774/76 Tryal (Liverpool, England). Capt. William Postlethwaite. Source: TST CD, 92568

1775 Mar. 10-11. Esperance (France). Off the coast of Zanzibar (East Africa). No crewmen killed; revolts unsuccessful. Source: Scarr. 33.

1775 Mar. 15. Brune (Honfleur, France). Capt. Louis Thibault Caillot. Off Goree Island [Senegambia]. 3 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:185-86.

1775 June. Senegal. All but 4 Africans and all crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Africans broke into the powder magazine and when defeat seemed imminent, blew up the ship, killing all aboard. Virginia Gazette (DH), July 1, 1775.

1775 Armina Elizabeth (Netherlands). Capts. A. de Boer and R. Barendse, 11 Africans and 11 crewmen killed. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 322, 382.

1775 Christiansborg (Denmark). Capt. Johan Franten Ferent. 85 Africans died on the voyage, but the number killed in the revolt is not fully known. Revolt unsuccessful. Svalesen, 223; Green-Pedersen, Source: TST CD, 35185.

1775 Geertruya Christina (Netherlands). Capt. John. Noordhock. Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166, 327, 385.

1775/76 Falstaff (Liverpool, England). Capt. Roger Leatham. Source: TST CD, 92527.

1775-77 Polly (London, England). Capt. John Reilly. TST CD, 77165.

1775/77 Pacifique (Le Havre, France). Mayumba [Central Africa] Revolt occurred on a shallop transporting Africans to the ship before they were boarded. Revolt successful. Source: 2:459-60.

1776 June. True Briton (Liverpool, England). Capt. James/John Dawson. Bonny [Bight of Biafra]. 1 crewman killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Williams, 560; TST CD, 92566.

1776 Nov./Dec.8. Thames (Rhode Island). Capt. Peleg Clark, Cape Coast [Gold Coast]. 33 Africans killed. Revolt unsuccessful; freedom for some. Source: Newport Historical Society Peleg Clarke Letters, letter book 76, letters dated Dec. 1, 1776, Dec. 15 1776; Dec. 27, 1776; Jan. 8, 1777 “Protest,” Accounts.”

1776 Phoenix (Bristol, Rhode Island), Capt. Charles Taylor. Cape Coast [Gold Coast]. 1 crewman killed; revolt successful. Newport Historical Society, Peleg Clarke Letters, letter book 76, letter dated May 6, 1776; Source: D. Richardson, Bristol, 4:67.

1776 Comte d’Estaing (France). Capt. Cesar Gasqui. West Indies? M. Robinson, 142-43.

1776 Jan. 21. Biefaisnt (Nantes, France). Capt. Luc Joly. Melimba (Central Africa). 6 crewmen killed. Successful—freedom for most. Source: Mettas, 1:603-4; Stein, French Slave trade, 88.

1776 July. The Phoenix. Capt. Peleg Clark. On board slave revolt. Source: D. S. T., III, 318.

1776 Dec. 8. Capt. Bell. On board slave revolt. Source: D.S.T. III 323.

1777 June 6. Amphitrite (Nantes, France) Capt. Jean Guyot. Bonny (Bight of Benin). 5 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:610-11.

1777 Aug. 14. Juliet (England). Capt. King. Cape Coast Castle [Gold Coast]. 2 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, T 70, 1468:4.

1779 (London, England). Revolt 1: Gold Coast. 5 Africans and no crewmen killed. Unsuccessful. Revolt 2: Gold Coast. 42 Africans and 1 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Revolt 3: Middle Passage. No Africans or crew killed. Unsuccessful. Source: Clarkson 314.

1779 (England). Unsuccessful. Source: Piersen, 150-51.

1780 May 14. Saint-Antonine d’Almas (Portugal. Capt. Joseph Caetane Rodriguez. Between the Zambezi River and Mauritus (East Africa). Unsuccessful. Source: Asgraly, 179-80; Alpers, 4.

1780 Vigilantie (Netherlands). Capt. Claas Boswijk. Revolt 1: Middle Passage? Unsuccessful. Revolt 2: Middle Passage? Unsuccessful. Revolt 3: Marowin River, French Guiana. 21 Africans killed. Successful. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166-67, 344, 382.

1781 (Liverpool, England) Bonny River [Bight of Biafra]. No one killed. Unsuccessful. Source: Clarkson, 315.

1782 Jan. 28. Fleury (Nantes, France). Capt. Joachim Gillard. Middle Passage. 1 crewman killed. Unsuccessful. Source: 1:622-23.

1783 May 3. Wasp (England). Capt. Richard Bowen. African Coast. 13 Africans killed. Unsuccessful. Felix Farley’s Bristol Journal, Sept 13, 1783: Universal Daily Register, July 1, 1785; Durnford and East. 1:130-31; M. Robinson, 9:144, 155, see also rebellion on the same voyage, May 22, 1783.

1783 Cato (England). Universal Daily Register, July 1, 1785.

1783 Oiseay (France). Ganachaud. Middle Passage. Unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:636.

1783/84 Bonne Societe (La Rochelle England). Capt. Gabriel David. Unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:346.

1783/84 Feb.-June Jeune Aimee (Nantes, France). Capt. Lazare Perrotiy. Mayumba (Central Africa). 7 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:638-30.

1784 May 27. Creole (La Rchelle, France). Capt. Crassous. Ceylon. Unsuccessful. Source: Deveau, 266.

1784 Christiansborg (Denmark). Capt. Cook. Source: TST CD, 35028.

1784/85 (Newport, Rhode Island). Middle Passage. Many Africans and all crewmen killed. Successful-recaptured. Providence Gazette and Country Journal, Jan. 29, 1785; London’s New York Packer, Feb. 14, 1785.

1785 May 23. Alexandre (Honfleur, France). Gabon River (Bight of Benin). Unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:193,

1785 Oct. 18. Neptunis (Netherlands). Mouri [Gold Coast]. 200-500 Africans and 17 crewmen killed. Successful. The ship was blown up either by Africans in a suicide attempt or by cannon from a nearby vessel attempting to recapture them. Source: Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 166-67; Paiewonsky, 21-23; Curtin, African Remembered, 133.

1785 (England). Gold Coast. All crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Africans recaptured on shore by soldiers and local Africans. Paiewonsky, 23.

1785 Kammerherre Schack (Denmark). Source: Highfield, 19.

1785 May 3. Bristol vessel. Source: J.C.N., I, 19.

1786 Mar. 2. Reverseau (La Rochelle, France). Capt. J. Gargeau. Senegal. 1 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:362.

1786 Aug. 10. Ville de Basle (La Rochelle, Frane). Capt. Villeneau. Porto Novo [Bight of Benin), 36 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:362.

1786 Oct. 9. Christiansborg (Denmark). Capt. Jens Jensen Berg. Middle Passage. 34 Africans and 2 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Paiewonsky, 20, 28; Hansen, 132-37.

1786 Viigilant (England). Capt. Duncan. Anomabu [Gold Coast] 2 crewmen killed; revolt successful. Source: Joseph Inikori, “Measuring,” 71.

1786/87 Roy d’Ambris (Le Havre, France). Capt. Guillaume Constantin Multiple revolts may have occurred on this voyage; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:501.

1786/87 Hudibras (Liverpool, England). Capt. Jenkin Evans. Source: TST CD, 81890

1787 Jan. Alexandre (Honfleur, France). Capt. Charles Herbli Gabon (Bight of Biafra). Some crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:199-200.

1787 July-Oct. Breton (Lorient, France). Capt. Guesdon. Mozambique (East Africa). Some Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:92-93, 621.

1787 Oct. Ruby (Bristol, England). Capt. Joseph William. Bimbe (Bight of Biafra). Some Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Dow, 173-77.

1787 Nov. 26. Tigre (France). Capt. Mathuri Bregeon. Madagascar [East Africa]. 15 Africans and 2 crewmen killed. Revolt successful—recaptured. Source: Asgarallly, 180-181.

1787 Flore (Honfleur, France). Capt. Giffard. Gabon River (Bight of Biafra). 1 African and 3 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 2:197-98, 2020-3.

1787 Avanture (Bordeaux, France). Capt. Banberique. Successful—freedom. New Lloyd’s List, Sep. 28, 1787.

1788 Jan. 23. Licorne (Bordeaux, France). Capt. Brugevin. Between Mozambique and Cape of Good Hope (South East Africa). Revolt successful. Source: New Lloyd’s List, Sep. 28, 1787.

1788 Jan. Franc Macon (Le Havre, France). Capt. Le Grand. Gabon River (Bight of Biafra). 5-6 Africans killed; revolt successful. Source: New Lloyd’s List, Jnly 4, 1788; Source: 2:510-11, 512.

1788 Mar. 14. Epanronidas (Flushing, Netherlands), Capt Isaac Din Baas. Capt. Sierra Leone (Sierra Leone). All but 2 crewmen killed; revolt successful. Source: New Lloyd’s List, May 13, 1788.

1788 Oct. 1. Antoinette (Honfleur, France). Capt. J. P. Varnier. Middle Passage. 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 2:204.

1788 Dec. 26. Augustine (Nantes, France). Capt. La Gree. Mayumba (Central Africa). 2 crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Source: Mettas, 1:710, 2:800.

1788 Dec. 31. Georgette (Nantes, France). Capt. Le Breton. Middle Passage. Revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 1:712.

1788 Aimable Louise (France) Gambia River [Senegambia] Successful. Deveau 263-64.

1788 Claire B. Williams (Denmark) Rokel Estuary (Sierra Leone). Successful revolt; freedom achieved. Source: Wadstrom, 2:79; Butt-Thompson, 44-45; Rathbone, 19: Rashid, 138.

1788 Golden Age (Liverpool, England) Bonny River (Bight of Biafra). 5 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Clarkson, 319-20.

1788/89 Veronique (Nantes, France). Capt. Mauguen. Loango (Central Africa). Successful. Mettas, 1:714.

1789 Felicity (Salem, MA). Capt. William Fairfield. Middle Passage. 3 Africans and 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Bentley, 123; Fairfield.

1789 Mar. Mercer (Liverpool, England). Capt. John Bellis. Middle Passage. Successful. Africans recaptured with the aid of another ship. Lloyd’s April 7, 1789; TST CD, 82688.

1789 Nov.14. Phoenix (Nantes, France). Capt. J. Fr. Dupuis. Middle Passage. 14 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 1:729.

1789 Bons Freres (Nantes, France). Capt. P. Foucher. Angola. (Central Africa). 3 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 1:728

1790 Auguste (Honfleur, France). Capt. Valentin. Revolt 1; Gabon River? (Bight of Biafra). No Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 2:210-11.

1790 Nov. 9. Jeremie (Le Havre, France). Capt. Pierre Girette. Isles de Los (Sierra Leone). 2 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: 2:532-33.

1790 Dec. Pearl (Bristol, England). Capt. William Blake. Old Calabar (Bight of Biafra). 3 Africans killed revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO C 107, vol. 12, letter dated Jan. 11, 1791.

1790 Antoinette (Honfleur, France). Capt. Andre Barthelemy de Haussy de La Verpillere. 3Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mettas, 2:209-10.

1790 (France). Sierra Leone. Some Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Wadstrom, 2:86-87.

1790 (Nantes, France) Bonny (Bight of Biafra). 100 Africans shot or drowned. 2 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Childers, 57-59.

1790/91 Vulture (Liverpool, England). Capt Samuel Glough. TST CD, 82982.

1791 Jan. Albion (Bristol, England). Capt. John Robinson Wade. Cape Mount (windward Coast) Liberia. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: D. Richardson, Bristol, 4:160.

1791 May 16. Favourite (Bristol, England). Capt. John Fithenry. African coast. 32 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: D. Richardson, Bristol, 4:184.

1791 Dec. 8. Friendship (English). Capt. Thomas Brown. I crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Behrendt, “Crew Mortality,” 133.

1791 Coureur (Bordeaux, France). Capt. J. J. Ducros. Gambia. All but 9 crewmen killed. Some Africans jumped overboard when the ship caught fire and freed themselves. Revolt unsuccessful—freedom for some. Mettas, 2:121.

1791 Victorieux (Honfleur, France). Capt. Armand Dunepveu. 3 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 2:214.

1792 Aug. 27. Mermaid (Bristol, England). Capts. James Mulling and Edward Tayor. African Coast. 19 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: D. Richardson, Bristol, 4:219.

1792 Calvados (Portugal (Indian Ocean). 50 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Lloyd’s List, Feb. 19, 1793.

1792 Christopher (Liverpool, England). Capt. Charles Molyneux. TST CD, 8035; Lloyd’s List, Dec. 28, 1792.

1792 Sally (Providence, Rhode Island). Jeremiah Taber. African coast. All but 2 crewmen killed. Successful—freedom—ship destroyed. Providence Gazette and Country Journal, Oct. 20, 1792.

1792/93 Eagle (England). Capts. Patrick Campbell and David McElheran. TST CD, 81097: Lloyd’s List, Mar. 22, 1793.

1792/93 Governor Parry (Liverpool, England). Capt. John Powell. TST CD, 81646.

1792/93 Peggy (Bordeaux, France). Capt. P. Nazereau. African Coast. 3 African killed; revolt unsuccessful. Mettas, 2:127-28.

1792-94 Alice (Liverpool, England). Capt. Bryan Smith. TST CD, 80190.

1792-94 Lumbie, Capt. Richard Rogers. TST CD, 98852.

1793 May. Cadiz Dispatch (London, England). Capt. Baldy. 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Lloyd’s List, Sep. 13, 1793; Durnford and East, 7:186-94.

1793 Sep 23. Pearl (New York, NY). Capt. Howard. Matacong Island (Sierra Leone). 2 Africans and 1 crewman killed. Revolt successful. Africans recaptured with the aid of an English ship. Source: Mouser, 93-94; Hamm, 398.

1793 Nancy (Providence, RI). Capt. Joseph B. Cook. Middle Passage. 4 Africans and no crewmen killed. Unsuccessful. Source: Salem Gazette, Jan 28, 1794; General Advertiser, Feb 11, 1794; Sharafi, 71-100.

1793 (Boston, MA) Sierra Leone. Several Africans and 7 crewmen killed. 3 of the crewmen killed were on another vessel that had come to the ship’s aid. Revolt successful. Africans recaptured with the aid of another ship. Those who got ashore were retaken by local Africans. Source: Wadstrom, 2:87.

1793 (United States). Sierra Leone. Some Africans and 1 crewman killed. Revolt successful. Africans recaptured with the aid of an English ship. This may be the Sep. 23, 1793, revolt on the Pearl. Source: Wadstrom, 2:86.

1793 The Charleston. Capt Joseph Hawkins. On board slave revolt. Source: Joseph Hawkins, A History of a Voyage to the Coast of Africa. (Philadelphia, 1797), 145-9.

1794 Jan. 14. Sandown (London, England). Capt. Samuel Gamble. Isles de Los (Sierra Leone). 8 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful—freedom for some. Mouser, 97.

1794 Mar. Venus (New York, NY). Capt. Hammond. Sierra Leone. 9 Africans killed; revolt successful. After a daylong battle with a nearby ship, the Africans reached land but were apparently recaptured by local Africans. Mouser, 99.

1794 Apr. Charleston (Charleston (Charleston, SC). Capt. J. Connelly. Niger River Dealt (Bight of Biafra). Revolt occurred on a shallop transporting Africans to the ship before they were boarded. 1 African and no crewmen killed. Revolt unsuccessful—freedom for 1. Source: Hawkins, 140-49.

1794 Jemmy/Jemmie/Jimmy (Liverpool, England). Capt. Richard Pearson. Middle Passage. 4 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Mouser, 114; TST CD, 82007; Lloyd’s List. Aug. 5, 1794.

1795 Nov. Liberty (Providence, RI). Capt. Abijah Potter. Between Goree Island and Sierra Leone. 1-2 Africans and 2 crewmen killed. Unsuccessful. Rhode Island Historical Society, log of the Dolphin, MS 828; Rhode Island State Archives, Moses Brown Papers, series 2, folder 6.

1795 Ann (Liverpool), England). Capt. John Mills. TST CD, 80246; Lloyd’s List, Apr. 7, 1795.

1795 (Boston, MA). Goree Island [Senegambia]. 4 crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Africans recaptured with the aid of another vessel after a 7 hour battle. Source: Donnan, 3:99-101.

1796 June 10. Mary (Providence, Rhode Island). Capt. Nathan Sterry. Cape Coast Castle (Gold Coast). 4 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Donnan, 3:374-75; Coughtry 151.

1796 June. Isabella (Bristol, England). Capt. Thomas Given. Angola (Central Africa). Successful. Lloyd’s List, June 21, 1796; Powell, 306.

1796 June. William (Liverpool, England). Capt. Bent. Angola (Central Africa). Revolt successful. Lloyd’s List, June 21, 1796; Powell, 306.

1796 Espera Dinheiro (Portugal). Source: Joseph Miller, Way of Death, 410.

1796 Bell (Liverpool, England). Capt. David Thompson. TST CD, 80472; Lloyd’s List, June 7, 1796.

1797 Ann (England) Capt. Muir. Middle Passage. Revolt successful. Lloyd’s List, July 7, 1797.

1797 Sept. 2. Thomas (Liverpool, England). Capt. Peter McQuay. Middle Passage. Several Africans and many crewmen killed. Revolt successful. After about 50 days the Africans were recaptured by a ship sent in pursuit of them. Source: Lloyd’s List, Dec. 15, 1797; C. Robinson, 1:322-23; William, 592-93; Brooke, 236-37; TST CD, 83783.

1797 Nov. 7. Ascension (Rhode Island). Capt. Samuel Chase. Mozambique (East Africa). No crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Newport Historical Society, Box 43A, folder 26, “Slaves, 1731-1820,” Letter dated Dec. 11, 1797.

1797 June. Capt. Thomas Clarke. Source: D.S.T. III, 101.

1797 June. The Cadiz Dispatch. On board slave revolt. J.C.N., I, 22.

1797 Sept. The Thomas. On board slave revolt. Source: D’Auvergne Human Livestock, 73.

1798 Diana (Liverpool, England). Capt. Robert Hume, Windward Coast. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Behrendt, letter; TST CD, 81015.

1799 Aug. 2. Trelawney (England). Cat. James Lake. Cabinda (Central Africa). Revolt successful. Africans recaptured with the aid of a nearby ship after a 90-minute battle. Source: C. Robinson, 4:184-88; TST CD, 81015.

1799 April. The Thomas. On board slave revolt. Source: J.C.N., I, 22.

1799 Lightning (Liverpool, England). Joseph Miller, Way of Death, 410.

1799/1800 Willy Tom Robin (Liverpool, England). Capt. Edward Kain, TST CD, 84072.

1800 Flying Fish (Providence, Rhode Island). Capt. Nathaniel Packard. West Indies. 10-15 Africans and 4-5 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Providence Gazette, Aug. 2, 1800; Newport Mercury, Aug. 5, 1800; Coughtry, 151, 158.

1801 June 24. Lucy (England). Capt. John Olderman. 1 crewman killed. Source: Behrendt, Captains, 137; TST CD, 82404.

1801/02 Doris (France). Capt. Liard. Zanzibar (East Africa). 110 Africans and 1 crewman killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Garneray, 155-69.

1804 Dec. 27. Tryal (Spain). Capt. Benito Cereno. Chilean Coast. (Intra-American African transport). 16 Africans and 25 crewmen killed. 9 of the African killed were executed in Concepcion. Chile. Mar. 2, 1805. Revolt successful African recaptured with aid of a nearby ship. Delano, 318-53.

1804 Anne (England). Capt. Bicknell. African Coast. Unsuccessful. C. Robinson, 5:92-93.

1806 July Bolton (Liverpool, England). Capt. Patrick Burleigh. Bonny River (Bight of Biafra). About 12 Africans killed when the ship blew up. Successful—most recaptured. Source: Crow, 98-99; TST CD, 80609.

1806 Oct. 4. Nancy (Rhode Island). Joshua Viall. Middle Passage. 4 Africans killed. Multiple revolts occurred. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Dow, 271-72; Donnan, 3:395-96, 400-401.

1806 Eleanor (Charleston, SC). Capt. Davidson. TST CD, 25504.

1806 Jane (Liverpool, England). Capt. John McGinnis. Congo River (Central Africa). All but 4 crewmen killed. Successful. Royal Gazette and Bahamas Advertiser, April 25, 1806; Inikori, “Measuring,” 74.

1807 Independence (Charleston, SC). Capt. Churchill. Loango (Central Africa). Revolt unsuccessful. Brevard, 3:522-25; Treadway, 2:i707-12.

1807 Aug. 1. The Nancy. Capt. Joseph Viale. Source: J.C.N., I, 22.

1807/08 Hibernia (Liverpool, England). Capt. Thomas Pratt. TST CD, 81835.

1808 Leander (Charleston, SC). Middle Passage. All crewmen killed. Successful—recaptured. Ship found drifting some 250 miles off the South Carolina coast with only 56 Africans on board. Bee, 260-62; Federal Cases, vol. 9 (1895), 275-76.

1808 May 20. Carolline (United States). Capt. Richard Willing. Middle Passage, 21 Africans and 3 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. P. Drake, 44-45; Dow, Slave ships and Slaving, 207.

1810 Zargozano (Spain). Capt. Juan Norbeto Dolz. TST CD. 7551.

1811 Amelia/Agent (Charleston, SC). Capts. Alexander Campbell and Joze Carlos de Almeida. TST CD. 7659.

1812 Apr. Feliz Eugenia (Portugal). Joseph Miller, Way of Death, 410.

1813 Jan. Aguia do Douro (Portugal). Joseph Miller, Way of Death, 410.

1814/15 Belle (Bordeaux, France). Capt. Brian. Daget, Repertoire, 1-6.

1819 Aug. Sao Pedro Aguia (Portugal). Joseph Miller, Way of Death, 410

1819 Sept. (Portugal). Joseph Miller, Way of Death, 410.

1819 Amitie (Bordeaux, France). Capt. Louis Christiaens. 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Daget, Repertoire, 61.

1819 Rodeur (Le Havre, France). Capt. Boucher. Middle Passage. Some Africans killed. Source: Niles’ Weekly Register, Apr. 21, 1821, 118; Rawley, 293; Dage, Repertoire, 88-90; De d’état actuel de la traite des noirs, 89.

1820 Mar. Industrie (Nantes, France). Bay of Saint-Suzanne. Reunion Island (East Africa) Successful. Source: Lacroix, 205; Daget, Repertoire, 133.

1820 Ceres (Nantes, France). Capt. Pierre Jean Lemerle. Zimbie (Bight of Biafra). 1 crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Daget, Repertoire, 116-18.

1823 (Brazil). Middle Passage. All crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Reis, 61; Mattoso, 40.

1824/25 Eleonore (Nantes, France). Capt. Mourailleur. TST CD, 2817.

1826 Sept. 17. (Bourbon, KY). Ohio River (domestic U.S. slave trade). 5 Africans and 5 crewmen killed. The 4 Africans killed were executed Nov. 29 in Kentucky. Revolt successful—freedom for some. The Africans sank the boat and made their way to Indiana, but all but a few were eventually recaptured. Source: Breckinridge County Archives, Circuit Court, book 7, pp. 182-83, 194, 207-8, 219; Kentucky Reporter, Sep. 25, Oct. 2, Oct. 9, 1826; Western Luminary, Sep. 27, Oct. 4, Oct. 11, Nov. 1, 1826; Genius of Universal Emancipation, Oct. 14, Oct. 21, Dec. 16, 1826; Niles’ Weekly Register, Oct. 14, Nov. 18, 1826; Connecticut Courant, Oct. 16, 1826.

1825 Jan. Deux Soeurs (Martinique/France). Capt. Henri Mornet. Sierra Leone. 6-8 crewmen killed. Successful. Africans recaptured with the aid of another vessel; the ship was taken to Sierra Leone, where the Africans were freed. Royal Gazette and Sierra Leone Advertiser, Apr. 9, 1825, Genius of Universal Emancipation and Baltimore Courier, Sept. 24, 1825; Niles’ Weekly Register, Oct. 1, 1825; Irish University Press, vol. 10, Class A, 9-10.

1826 Apr. 25. Decatur (Boston, MA). Capt. Walter Galloway, between South Carolina and Bermuda (domestic U.S. slave trade). 1 African and 2 crewmen killed. The African killed, William Bowser, was convicted of killing the captain and executed in New York on De. 15. Successful—freedom for most. Though the recaptured Decatur was taken into New York, all but 1 of the Africans inexplicably escaped. Source: New York Evening Post, May 18, May 20, May 23, May 26, Dec. 14, Dec. 15, 1826; Niles’ Weekly Register, May 20, 1826; National Gazette and Literary Register, May 20, 1826; Christian Inquirer, Dec. 23, 1826; Genius of Universal Emancipation, Jan. 2, Jan. 8, Jan. 20, Feb.24, Mar. 31, 1827.

1827 Augusta (France). All crewmen killed; revolt successful. McGowan, “Origins,” 83, 88-89.

1827 Gloria (Brazil). Capt. Ruiz. African coast. 40 Africans “killed and wounded;” no crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: P. Drake, 89

1828 Intrepido (Cuba?) Middle Passage? Some Africans killed in two revolts. Unsuccessful. Buxton, 149.

1829 Dec. 17. Lafayette (United States). Capt. Bisset. 3 days out from Norfolk, VA (domestic U.S. slave trade). No Africans or crewmen killed. Unsuccessful. New York Evening Post, Dec. 29, 1829; Genius of Universal Emancipation, Jan. 1, 1830; Richmond Enquirer, Jan. 5, Jan. 28, 1830; Niles’ Weekly Register, Jan. 9, 1830.

1829 (United States). Ohio River (domestic U.S. slave trade). 1 crewman killed. Unsuccessful. 4 Africans were later executed in Kentucky. Niles’ Weekly Register, Dec. 26, 1829; Richmond Enquirer, Jan. 28, 1830.

1829 L’Estrella. Capt. Theodore Canot. On board slave revolt. Source: Brantz Mayer, Adventures of an African Slaver, (New York, 1928) 264-5.

1831 Mar. 13. Virginie (Nantes, France). Capt. Aubin Sherbro (Sierra Leone). 11 crewmen killed; revolt successful. Daget, Repertoire, 537-38.

1831 May. Venus (Matanzas, Cuba). Capt. Theophilus Conneau. Middle Passage. 6 Africans and crewmen killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Conneau, 202-10.

1839 July 2. Amistad (Cuba). Capt. Ramon Ferrer. American coast. 2 Africans and 2 crewmen killed. Revolt successful. Africans recaptured with the aid of a U.S. warship. U.S. Supreme Court found that these Africans were illegally enslaved, and they were freed and return back to Africa. Source: Coffin, Principal Slave Insurrection 33.

1841 Creole (United States). Capt. Robert Ensor. U.S. Coast (domestic U.S. slave trade). 1 African and 1 crewman killed; revolt successful. Source: M. Robinson, 9:111-84.

1843 Apr. 12. Progresso (Brazil). Off Fogo, Mozambique (East Africa). Successful—freedom for the Africans. Ship was captured by anti-slave trade cruiser, and the Africans freed. Source: P. Hill, 19-22.

1844 Sept. Kentucky (New York, NY). Capt. Manuel Pinto da Fonseca. Inhambane (East Africa). 53 Africans killed. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, F) 84, 563; 172-89; Senate Executive Documents, 28-3031 (1847), 4:71-77; House Executive Documents, 61- 30-2 (Mar. 2, 1849), 148, 220-21; Irish University Press, vol. 29, Class A, 513-23; Conrad. 39-42.

1846 Andonovi (Bahia, Brazil). Capt. Antonio Lopez Guimaraes. Middle Passage. 60 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Irish University Press, vol. 35, Class B, 270.

1847 (Baltimore, MD). Middle Passage. Revolt successful. African recaptured with the aid of another vessel after a long period adrift. Lacroix, 206.

1847 Curioso (Brazil/Portugal?). 67 Africans killed or wounded. I crewman killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Forbes, 97-98.

1850 Feb. 2. Aventuera/Ventura (Brazil). Capt. Joao Moreira da Camara. Middle Passage. 5 Africans killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: Irish University Press, vol. 38, Class A. 176, 245-46.

1853 (Matanzas, Cuba). Capt Antonio Capo. Middle Passage. 200 Africans killed in two revolts. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO FO 84, 905:115; Irish University Press, vol. 40, Class B, 644, 658.

1858 April. Regina Coeli (France). Capt. Simon. Cape Palmas (Windward Coast). 250 Africans and 11 crewmen killed. The Africans were apparently killed as they attempted to swim ashore. Revolt successful. Eltis suggest that the Africans escaped in the Monrovia area. London Times, June 18, 1858; New York Times, June 21, 1858; Class A Correspondence, 225, 245; Eltis, Rise of African Slavery, 232.

1859 (Cardnas, Cuba). Middle Passage. Revolt unsuccessful. Source: Irish University Press, vol. 46, Class A, 14; Ibid., Class B, 166; Irish University Press, vol. 50, Class B, 137.

1865 Aug. (Cuba?) Middle Passage. 6-7 Africans and 3 crewmen killed; revolt unsuccessful. Source: PRO, FO 84, 1241: 196; Irish University Press, vol. 50. Class B, 137.

REFERENCES

Secondary References

Anstey, Roger T. The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, 1760-1810. Atlantic Highlands, N. J: Humanities press, 1975.

Coughtry, Jay. The Notorious Triangle: Rhode Island and the African Slave Trade, 1700-1607. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981.

Davidson, Basil. The African Slave Trade: Revised and Expanded Edition. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.

Donnan, Elizabeth, ed. Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade. 2 vols. New York, Octagon, 1965.

Dow, George Frances Slave Ships and Slavings. Salem, Mass: Marine Research Society, 1927.

Klein, Herbert S. The Atlantic Slave Trade. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. The Middle Passage: Comparative Studies in the Atlantic Slave Trade. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978.

Lovejoy, P. Africans in Bondage: Studies in Slavery and the Slave Trade. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986.

Manning. Patrick Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800 2d ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Vogt, John. Portuguese Rule on the Gold Coast, 1469-1682. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1979.

Walvin, James. Making the Black Atlantic: Britain and the African Diaspora. New York: Cassell, 2000.

Primary References

1Eric Robert Taylor, If We Must Die: Shipboard Insurrections in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Louisiana State University Press, 2009.

2Klein and Stanley L. Engerman, "Long-Term Trends in African Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade," Slavery and Abolition, l 18, No. 1 (1997)

3Behrendt, Eltis, and Richardson, "Costs of Coercion." These calculations assume that some 6.7 million enslaved Africans were embarked at the coast between 1700 and 1810 and at least 11 million during the whole history of the trade.

4Respectively, n=6771, sd=177.45; n=14.769, sd=158.6

5Mannix and Cowley, Black Cargoes, 110.

6David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the America. Cambridge, 2000, 232; Also see Eltis, "The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment," in the same volume.

7Peter H. Wood, Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stone Rebellion. New York: Knopf, 1974, 6.

8William Snelgrave, A New Account of Some Parts of Guinea and the Slave Trade, 164.

9Elizabeth Donnan, Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America, vol. III, 118-121, 207].

10News Letter, May 6, 1731. The account was signed by George Scott; the first notice of this disaster appeared in the News Letter, April 29, 1731.

11Read's Weekly Journal and British Gazetteer, January 28, 1731.

12News Letter, Sept. 7, 1732; South Carolina Gazette, Nov. 18, 1732.

13Weekly Rehearsal, Sept. 10, 1733; also in the News Letter, Sept. 6, "Extract of a letter from Captain Moore, who sail'd from this Port for Guinea the beginning of last Winter, dated at St. Jago, one of the Cape de Verde Island, July 20, 1733."

14Elizabeth Donnan, Documents illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America, vol. III.

15New Letter, May 7, 1747.

16News Letter of Sept. 24, 1761.

17Gazette Jan. 5, 1764, Feb. 5, 1764; News Letter, Sept. 20, and Oct. 25, 1764; Kimball, Note-Book, II. 42.

18Massachusetts Gazette and News Letter, September 20, 1764; Extraordinary, August 16, 1764.

19Newport Mercury, Sept. 16; Nov. 18, 1765; Mass. Gazette and News Letter, Nov. 28, 1765.

20Newport Mercury, Nov. 25, 1765; Newport Historical Society, package no. 183.

21Mass. Gazette and News Letter, August 22, 1765.

22Clark Letter Book, no. 76.

23New York Packet, Feb. 14, 1785.

24Essex Institute Historical Collection, XXV, 311-312.

25Salem Gazette, Sept. 13, 1791.

26Mass. Historical Society Proceedings XLIV, 668.

27R. Edward Lee, "Madison Washington, Slave Mutineer," Blackfax, Winter/Spring 1998, Vol. 8 Issue 36, p.8.